19. Maritime Contours: India – Vietnam & India-Japan Relationships

(Published article in Defence and Security Alert April 2013))

Maritime Contours: India – Vietnam & India-Japan  Relationships

Archaeological findings of shipwrecks found along Chinese coast have confirmed existence of Sea trade as early as 203 BC, to and from Chinese Kingdom ports to India, Sri Lanka and further on to Persia. Excavations at Guangzhou have revealed existence of a dockyard capable of building ships suitable for coastal sailing. Other ports on the route to India and beyond most probably provided transitory facilities of lodging, boarding, warehousing etc. The goods being traded however belonged to China, India and the Arabian countries. The Maritime Silk Road, known as an alternate to the land silk road was used from 25 AD onwards by Qin and Han Dynasties. Han dynasty records reveal that ships laden with raw and processed silk would transit to Rome via India/Sri Lanka, loading pearls and other goods produced in these countries. The maritime road weaved its way from China, India, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea to the ports in the Mediterranean. The Maritime Silk Road thus enabled trade and cultural exchanges for centuries between Far East and the West through the transit ports. It gained importance with improved skills in navigation and ship building and opening of other sea routes in South Asia, by the middle of 8th century it blossomed in to a preferred route because the land silk route was rendered unsuitable due to warring tribes. However in the early 17th century, The Ming and Qing dynasties banned maritime trade leading to a rapid decline in the usage of Maritime Silk Route. The spread of sea trade and the associated intermingling of cultures along the Maritime Silk Road, in a way, opened the doors to nearly 18 centuries of cooperative economic engagement between sea faring countries in Asia and Europe. Incidentally two of the important eastern ports were Jiaozhou, now in northern Vietnam and Guangzhou in China.

DSA apr-1

MAP: Ancient Maritime Silk Road

Today, the energy flows and to a lesser extent, sea borne trade dominate the Maritime Silk Road with the SLOCs becoming economic life lines for growth and sustenance in the Asia-Pacific region. Maritime commerce has flourished and would continue to do so because it is a far cheaper and quicker means of fuelling a country’s needs in a globalised world. Post cold war, it has been a major contributor to rapid growth in Asia although it has led to a host of security issues like, spectre of choking of SLOCS, sea piracy, strikes by terrorists & non state actors, drug & arms running, human trafficking, fishing disputes and environmental pollution. The wide spectrum of security issues have goaded the countries to cooperate through a loose frame work of arrangements at sea to ensure safety of SLOCs while guaranteeing   that their own sovereign interests are not impinged in any manner.

 Maritime Claims and Disputes

Even though majority of territorial boundary issues have been satisfactorily resolved, maritime disagreements and disputes continue to exist due to complicated maritime boundary claims by multiple countries mainly in the light of rich offshore resources and the gains associated with extended land mass in marking of EEZs.

DSA Apr 2

MAP: Complexities of EEZs in Asia-Pacific

 

For example Republic of Kiribati consisting of three island groups in the south pacific, with a land mass of just over 717 sq kms (compare with India’s land mass of about 3,287,590 sq kms) lays claim to an EEZ of the size of India! The countries in the region have however resorted to process of dispute resolution by showing a flexible and cooperative approach in almost all the cases, and have put in place provisional arrangements in case of unresolved issues.

 

Map:  Disputed Islands

 

Vietnamese Claims

The hydrocarbon rich Spratly islands in the South China Sea are claimed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan, Brunei, and Philippines. Vietnam has laid claim to Paracel Islands which are under occupation of China since mid seventies. Vietnam and China have disputes over claims to portions of Vung May, Song Hong and Phu Khanh basins. China stepped up the ante when it objected to oil and gas exploration in blocks 127 and 128 in the EEZ of Vietnam by OVL of India. However OVL which had initially withdrawn has decided to continue exploration after an extension of 2 years was granted by Vietnam.

 

South China Sea Territorial Claims

Country

South China Sea

Spratly Islands

Paracel Islands

Gulf of Thailand

Brunei

UNCLOS

no formal claim

no

Cambodia

UNCLOS

China

all*

all

all

Indonesia

UNCLOS

no

no

Malaysia

UNCLOS

3 islands

no

UNCLOS

Philippines

significant portions

8 islands

no

Taiwan

all*

all

all

Thailand

UNCLOS

Vietnam

all*

all

all

UNCLOS

* excluding buffer zone along littoral states (calculations for buffer unknown)
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration

Japanese Claims

China and Japan have two disputes, one related to ownership of Daioyu/Senkaku Islands and the other related to demarcation of the sea boundary between the two.

Source: Interfax

Map: Disputed Sea Boundary and Islands- Japan

.

India’s Maritime Engagements with Vietnam and Japan

The Asia –Pacific region is characterised by differing threat perceptions with respect to neighbours as well as countries they perceive as hegemons , they do not like interference by outsiders in their matters and prefer dispute resolution bilaterally or through discussions between the directly involved parties in case there are more than two. They look upon multilateral agreements of the type in vogue in Europe as a sort of military alliances (which were created to resolve military issues) which could lead to military intervention by powers outside the region. With reduction in the deployment of forces by the US, and the end of cold war, there is a sense of void in the maritime security of the region. The broad security concerns of the region with respect to ‘outsiders’ are best summarised in the words of Mr. Lee Kuan Yew of  Singapore, “when there is vacuum in ASEAN maritime security, Japan surely will involve in it, …so will be China, what if India will also send two aircraft carriers to our ocean? If all these happen, the consequence will be turbulent and disaster”. The region therefore prefers cooperative engagement on both economic and defence fronts. The multilateral maritime security arrangements amongst them help to have a positive say in maintaining balance in the region. They look upon, rising China, Japan, India and the US Asia-Pacific shift, to attain a favourable counterbalance in the region leading to peaceful economic growth. In fact these countries engage in maritime security cooperation with England, Russia, Australia and New Zealand also. This approach guarantees them sufficient maritime security in the region while allowing them enough room to manoeuvre between the larger extra regional powers.

Since India does not have any territorial aspirations in the region it is largely perceived as a benign power as well as a large market for their goods and services. India’s look east policy appears to be paying considerable dividends as far as economic integration with Asia-Pacific is concerned. A look at economic indicators with respect to India  reveals that while total trade, as a proportion of the GDP, from US and EU decreased from 12.69% and 20.84% to 8.5% and 15.94% (between FY 2003-04 to FY 2009-10); trade increased from 26.70% to 30.19% with the Asia Pacific region. India’s main concern is its sea borne trade, as about 50% of its east bound trade passes through Malacca Straits and uses routes in the South China Sea/ East Sea and therefore as a part of look east diplomacy India has entered into multifarious agreements with many Asia-pacific countries, bilaterally and multilaterally, including maritime security, cultural and educational exchanges, development programs, defence cooperation and exercises involving all the three services, training, HA/DR, port visits etc. The look east initiative by India is also accepted by USA and the same was articulated by Presidents Barack Obama in his speech to both houses of Indian Parliament in Nov 2010, he said, Like your neighbours in Southeast Asia, we want India not only to “look East,” we want India to “engage East” because it will increase the security and prosperity of all our nations”.

In view of the above, India’s maritime engagements with Vietnam and Japan have to be seen with the backdrop of countries in the Asia-Pacific and the issues affecting their economies.

Vietnam has been a trusted friend and an ally not only historically but also since its independence in 1954.India shares a rich cultural heritage with Vietnam and Vietnam supports India’s political ideology of non alignment. The geographical location of Vietnam on the southern tip of China makes it a strategic partner not only for Japan and the US but also for India. A Joint Declaration of the strategic partnership was signed between the two countries in 2007. India has given a large consignment of spare parts of Petya class of warships to Vietnam, and the periodic port visits to Vietnam by Indian Naval ships ensure an Indian presence in the South China Sea. It is also understood that Brahmos missile has been cleared for export to Vietnam. It has been reported that the Uran missile is likely to be jointly produced by Russia and Vietnam. This missile is already in use on Indian naval ships. With impending opening of the private sector to defence post Choppergate, joint ventures with Vietnamese firms may pay rich dividends for both the countries.

In view of rising tensions due to disputes over island territories and offshore exploration in South China Sea, India has articulated that freedom of navigation in South China Sea has to be respected by all and has supported a collective mechanism to resolve the issues in South China Sea and East Sea. It is imperative that the sea corridor from India to Vietnam through Malacca remains open and unencumbered for free flow of trade. Shri A K Antony, Defence Minister at ADMM+ meeting in Hanoi, in Oct 2010 has said that “The security of sea lanes is important for the Asia-Pacific region, which is now one of the most important drivers of global economic growth….. Cooperative approaches on maritime security would offer benefits for the region as a whole.”

India and Japan have had very cordial relations historically as well as for over 60 years since India’s independence; incidentally Japan was the first country to sign Strategic and Global partnership pact in 2006 with India. In 2010 both countries decided to expand the defence and security cooperation by enhancing the capacity to respond to maritime security challenges through information sharing, multilateral and bilateral exercises, dialogue and training. The prime ministerial meet on 25 Oct 2010 was accompanied by the launch of Japan India Shipping Policy Forum and mutual exchange of schedules of escort operations by Indian Navy and the JSDF.

Cooperation on maritime security issues, which include non-conventional security threats and HA/DR, is one of the pillars of India-Japan bilateral relationship. Japan is also planning to create a multilateral maritime security forum in which India is likely to play a prominent role. China however feels that this strategic partnership would eventually lead to containment of rising China. Li Hongmei in an article titled “India’s ‘Look East Policy’ Means ‘Look to Encircle China’?” in People’s Daily (27 Oct 2010) has written that “by taking advantage of the face-off between China and Japan, India still cannot relax its spasm of worries about China, nor can it brush aside the fear that China might nip its ambitions in the bud”. However there has been no official Chinese response to the strategic maritime security cooperation between Japan and India. Even though bilateral and multilateral naval exercises involving Japan, USA and Australia have been conducted, India on its part has been non-committal towards an alliance with USA, Australia and Japan. The recent Asia-Pacific shift by the US would also, in all probability, help in de-escalating tensions in the South China Sea. India maintains that there is enough space for both the giants in Asia and much can be achieved through economic engagement and cooperation.

Maritime security relationships with both Vietnam and Japan need to be nurtured as they hold the key to freedom of navigation in South China Sea, they also extend the strategic reach of India’s maritime capability up to Japan. The way forward to prosperity of the Asia-Pacific region lies through cooperative engagement and not through escalation of disputes to conflicts which would impede much needed economic growth of nations in the region.

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