20. Nanotechnology – Applications in the Navy

(Published article in SP’s Military Year Book 2013)

Nanotechnology – Applications in the Navy

 

 The concept of nanotechnology took birth on 29 Dec 1959, when the Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman uttered these famous words:

“I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each other, which are manufacturing simultaneously. . . The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of manoeuvring things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big”.

He was delivering a lecture titled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom, An Invitation to Enter a New Field of Physics,” at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).By his talk he had excited the realm of physics and opened up endless possibilities of research and exploration. In 1974 Norio Taniguchi, introduced the term Nanotechnology when he said “Nano-technology mainly consists of the processing of separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule.” He was speaking of the so called ‘Top down’ approach of manufacturing relating to semiconductor processes. In 1986, K Eric Drexler is credited with giving the word Nanotechnology a much wider connotation, when he defined the term from view point of a physicist as “large-scale mechano-synthesis based on positional control of chemically reactive molecules.”

Nanotechnology represents one of those emerging ‘platform’ technologies that can provide much needed enhanced capabilities to defence of a country. Nanotechnology is a field that does not stem from one established academic discipline[1].  There are a number of ways in which nanotechnology may be defined. The most common version regards nanoscience as ‘the ability to do things – measure, see, predict and make – on the scale of atoms and molecules and exploit the novel properties found at that scale’ [2] . Traditionally, this scale is defined as being between 0.1 and 100 nanometres (nm), 1 nm being one-thousandth of a micron (micrometer; mm), which is, in turn, one thousandth of a millimetre (mm). However, this definition is open to interpretation, and may readily be applied to a number of different technologies that have no obvious common relationship[3] . Another way to characterise nanotechnology is by distinguishing between the fabrications processes of top-down and bottom-up. Top-down technology refers to the ‘fabrication of nanoscale structures by machining and etching techniques’[4]. However, top-down means more than just miniaturisation; at the nanoscale level different laws of physics come into play, properties of traditional materials change, and the behaviour of surfaces start to dominate the behaviour of bulk materials.

On the other hand, bottom-up technology – often referred to as molecular nanotechnology (MNT) – applies to the creation of organic and inorganic structures, atom by atom, or molecule by molecule[5]. It is this area of nanotechnology that has created the most excitement and publicity. In a mature nanotech world, macrostructures would simply be grown from their smallest constituent components: an ‘anything box’ would take a molecular seed containing instructions for building a product and use tiny nanobots or molecular machines to build it atom by atom   [6]. Indeed, as Forrest[7], points out, ‘the development of (bottom-up) technology does not depend upon on discovering new scientific principles. The advances required are engineering.’ In short, fully-fledged bottom-up nanotechnology promises nothing less than complete control over the physical structure of matter – the same kind of control over the molecular and structural makeup of physical objects that a word processor provides over the form and content of text  [8]. That this underlying research has now moved into economically viable products can be gauged from the emergence of three alliances i.e. the Europe NanoBusiness Association, the Asia-Pacific Nanotechnology Forum, and US NanoBusiness Alliance. In addition to this, laboratories around the world are working on new approaches and on new ways to scale up nanotechnology to industrial levels. For example, the first factories to manufacture carbon nanotubes and fullerenes in Japan [9] have already started production.

Harper [10] describes the current situation as a global ‘arms race’, he states: –

 “You only have to look at how IT made a huge difference to both the US economy and US military strength to see how crucial technology is. Nanotechnology is an even more fundamental technology than IT. Not only has it the ability to shift the balance of military power but also affect the global balance of power in the energy markets.”

 Smith [11] articulates that military power is at the base of thrust on nanotechnology.He indicates that military planners may even be guiding governmental research in the US in the field of nanotechnology. Growing strategic interest of both large and small nations in nanotechnology is evidenced in the increase in public investment in nanotechnology. ETC group [12] has estimated that around US $4 billion is the allocation in Global R&D in nanotechnology.

Applications and Markets

The applications of nanotechnology are extremely diverse, mainly because the field is interdisciplinary[13]. In addition, the effect that nanotechnology will have during the coming decades is difficult to estimate because of potentially new and unanticipated applications. However, it seems reasonable to assume that during the next two to three years most activity in nanotechnology will still be in the area of research, rather than large scale of completed projects or products. Currently it is estimated that there are over 2000 commercial products in the market manufactured across 25 countries. These cover a wide range of items from medical, sports, electronics, food, paints, to beauty products, etc.

However, as with the difficulty in predicting the future applications of nanotechnology, many market analysts believe that it is too soon to produce reliable figures for the global market – it is simply too early to say where and when markets and applications will come [14]. In spite of these difficulties, some forecasts exist that do hint at the kind of growth we might expect. Most strikingly, the National Science Foundation (NSF) predicts that the total market for nanotech products and services will reach US$ 1 trillion by 2015[15].

 Major Civil Applications

Nanotechnology in Agriculture.          Agriculture and food industry is likely to see tremendous improvements with applications and developments in nanotechnology. This would include detection and treatment of plants for diseases, nanosensors and delivery systems to fight against pathogens and viruses, and nanostructured catalysts for much better herbicides and pesticides. This will lead to better environment coupled with advancements of nanotechnology in renewable energy, air, and water pollution removal agents.

Nanotechnology in the Food Industry.            There has been increased awareness in the media and public with regards to nano-food, which has made companies dealing in such products to come out and declare details of their research programs and products. These include interactive foods, smart packaging and on demand preservatives etc. Interactive foods imply that consumer can decide the colour, flavour and nutrients just prior to consuming the food. Nanoencapsulated nutrients colour or flavour would already be present in the food and would be released by the consumer as per his requirements[16]. Kraft, Unilever, Nestle etc. are investing heavily in to nanofood research for gaining leadership in future. Nanofood does not mean food made by nano machines or food modified atomically; it means food in which nanotechnology has been used in farming, processing, production or packaging.

Energy and Nanotechnology.  Energy research is becoming increasingly important, particularly as regards the role it plays in support of a wide range of key national policies (e.g. security and diversification of energy supply, combating climate change and air pollution, energy market liberalisation, sustainable development, industrial competitiveness, regional development and cohesion…). Nanotechnology shows promising potential in all segments of the energy sector; production, storage, distribution and use with the potential to change the way we convert, store and utilise the world’s energy supply.

The most advanced nanotechnology projects related to energy are; storage, conversion, manufacturing improvements by reducing materials and process rates, energy saving e.g. by better thermal insulation, and enhance renewable energies sources. More specifically in products such as batteries, manufacturing catalysts, fuel cells, solar cells, and strong lightweight materials, among others.

Nanotechnology in Medicine.              Nanomedicine will improve healthcare in all phases of the care process. New in vitro diagnostic tests are shifting diagnosis to an earlier stage, before symptoms really develop and allow pre-emptive therapeutic measures. Invivo diagnosis is becoming more sensitive and precise, thanks to new imaging techniques and nano-sized targeted agents. Therapy would be greatly improved in efficacy by new systems that allow targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to the diseased site, ideally avoiding conventional delivery. Regenerative medicine would provide a therapeutic solution to revitalise tissue or organs, which may make life-long medication unnecessary.

Nanotechnology and Spaceflight.        Reduction in rocket fuel required, lighter space craft systems, extensive and crucial monitoring of space craft and astronauts by nanosensors and nanobots, and reducing costs in planet exploratory systems and inter orbital travel by using nanomaterials, sensors and nanobots are some of the priorities of space laboratories.

Military Applications of Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is permeating in to a plethora of military applications practically covering all frontiers of military technology in all the three services, for e.g.-

-Wireless communications

-Biomedical sensors

-Mass data storage

-Inertial measurement units

-Active conformable surfaces for aircraft.

-Signal processing

-Unmanned sensors for tracking and surveillance

-Analytical instruments

-Distributed sensors for condition-based maintenance and structural monitoring

-Optical fibber components and networks

-Distributed control of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic systems

 

Applications in Precision Guided Munitions PGMs.   Nanotechnology has made PGMs more powerful. Impact of PGMs in gulf war on Strategic targets (military support facilities, and C3 assets etc,) was akin to a mini RMA. The properties of very low weight, size and cost make nanotechnology an ideal choice for PGMs and associated systems (integral sensors, actuators accelerators, computers etc,). These further make it amenable to custom designing of specific weapon packages. A nano missile accelerometer and gyroscope could cost less than $20 as against the cost of $1,000 of an equivalent device today. Callahan [17] predicts that “With nano navigation components, many dumb munitions—howitzer, mortar, and rocket fired— could be retrofitted and transformed into PGM-like weapons. Unguided rounds with a circular error probability of 250 meters could instantly improve to a few meters.” Increased accuracy in conventional ammunition would require much lesser number of rounds for disabling a target.

Nanotech and the Soldier.       Shimon Peres, former Prime Minister of Israel opened a Dutch-Israeli NT conference on 15 April 2004, saying:-

 “A nano-uniform for American soldiers will be lighter than cotton, but protect them against bullets and gas, regulate their body temperature, and enhance their strength. They can easily lift 120 kg with one hand. This new uniform will be available in three years[18] .”

 In several areas Nano technological research and development has already promised results that could be speedily integrated into a war fighter’s battle suit.

Communications. Efforts by Raytheon indicate the production of a military radio receiver as small as a credit card (Current weight is 10 lbs), which would work longer by a factor of 10 and be easily maintainable.

 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Current MEMS based UAVs are as small as 6 inches long and weigh 3 ounces. Nanotech UAVs would imply that war fighters could carry large numbers of disposable UAVs. They could be used for purposes like jamming, reconnaissance, targeting and early warning.

Identification Friend or Foe (IFF). Nanotechnology would now enable forces to be equipped with military aircraft like IFF systems, to differentiate between enemy and friendly forces. Such a designator could be part of a war fighter’s outfit.

 Information Display. Nanotech high resolution, low-power display screen (0.5 to 5 inches) could be incorporated in the monocle visual display in the Land Warriors helmet. (The display shows data, position, maps, and orders etc,)

 Navigation. Command and control could be augmented by providing war fighters with inertial navigation system/ global positioning system (INS/GPS) device, which could aid in location, interrogation and transmission of information.

 Chemical/Biological Warfare Defence. Nanotech CBW detection systems could be made small enough to be carried by war fighters which would lead to quick detection of the use of CBW by the enemy.

Defence Research in Nanotechnology

The Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the US is funding work at universities, as are the R&D agencies of the various branches of the armed services (which also carry out research in their own laboratories). DARPA programs cover electronics (e.g. sub-50-nm lithography, spintronics, molecular electronics, nano-scale interconnects), materials (such as nanotubes, conducting or electroactive polymers, magnetic memory, functional fibres for textiles), and biology (e.g., nano magnetic particles to analyse and manipulate biomolecules and cells, cantilever based atomic-resolution imaging of bio molecules, biology-electronics interfaces, nano-biomolecular motors, assembly of bone and skin, and fast-acting biological-warfare sensors).

The Naval Research Laboratory had founded an Institute for Nano science in 2003. Here and in the traditional divisions, wide ranging research is being done in the areas of nano-assembly, -optics, -chemistry, -electronics, and -mechanics. Work on nanotechnology; for chemical and biological defence, structural materials, and particulate materials; in nano energetic materials, with focus on insensitive (i.e., safe against unintended ignition) high-energy propellants with improved burning rate and mechanical properties; is being done at The Army Research Laboratory. The Air Force Research Laboratory is active in biology, electronics, materials, and physics; one focus is energetic nanoparticles for explosives and propulsion. The Defence University Research Initiative on NT (DURINT) gives grants for NT equipment as well as research projects, with project titles ranging from quantum computing via nanotubes to nano-energetic systems.

Nanotechnologies Impacting Navy

Nano Energetic Materials (nEMs)

Since 2004, ‘Combat Safe Insensitive Munitions’ concept has shifted the focus of safety from a pure materials approach to making marine explosives insensitive to a platform based approach based upon mechanics to increase insensitivity.US Navy has been at the forefront of R&D into new energetic materials since a long time and it is opined that nanotechnology enabled energetic materials would form the backbone of the future defence systems. Timely induction of nano enabled energetic systems with controlled energy release is the focus of current research at the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA) Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHDIV/NSWC), and the University of Maryland at College Park (UMCP).

In layman’s terms Nanoenergetic materials (nEMs) perform better than conventional materials because they offer much larger surface area, thus increasing speed of reaction leading to much larger energy release in much shorter time. Superthermites (nano-aluminium based) when added have shown instantaneous increase in explosive power of current compositions[19]. Further with simply using nano sized materials in current explosives has significantly increased safety and insensitivity by as much as over 30% without affecting reactivity. It is predicted that nEMs would provide the same explosive power at mass up to two orders of magnitude less than the current explosive systems[20].

In rocket propellants a nEMs have shown similar capabilities at Los Almos National Laboratories with nitrogen energised nEMs[21]. In addition, incorporation of more than one burning rate in rocket propellants has given rise to novel design options by creating grains with continuously varying properties along the length as well as across the radius of the grain in Functionally Graded Materials (FGM).

Energy Storage

Nano-structures like nano wires, quantum dots, nanotubes etc have led to design of batteries with much less heat loss, resistance and weight. Using nanowires M/s Amprius has achieved 40% density enhancement in current designs.[22].Doubling of energy storage in Li Ion batteries has been achieved by M/s EEStors by using nanobarium titanate powders. 56[23]. These have direct implications in naval weapon systems, electrical and power distribution systems, communication and C4ISR equipment etc.

Some Nanotech Products in Use in the Navies

            AMC, based at Norway, has developed and tested various super smooth bottom paints for the merchant marine that are modified with a patented Finnish technology to disperse Carbon Nanotubes (CNT / Baytube from Bayer) in liquid polymers. AMC coatings provide a pore free surface where Shellfish, crustaceans and barnacles are unable to attach themselves and algae and slime are unable to grow.

            Industrial Nanotech, Inc. of Naples Italy, dealing in nanotechnology based energy saving solutions, has completed testing and analysis of the use of Nansulate[R] for specific applications in military ships and vehicles. Nansulate® has been utilized for a number of applications by the U.S. Navy at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard and Pearl Harbour Naval Base, at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard for insulation and corrosion control, and by the Naval Business Center in Philadelphia. Some other products by Industrial Nanotech, which are already in use, are given below:-

Nano-Antenna Devices.          They enable applications such as broadband solar cells, multi-spectral photo detector arrays, photo-induced capacitors and inductors, large-area photoconductors and spatial light modulators.

Nanomembrane-Based Flexible Electronics. They enable flexible, bendable and stretch­able electronic devices, device arrays and circuits. Uses include optical displays, pliable sensors and flexible solar cells.

High Strength Composites for Radom’s.       These high-performance materials enable more reliable communications, with decreased thickness, weight, and cost.

HYBRIDSIL Hydrophobic Coating.             The properties for this coating include anti-icing, anti-fogging, self-cleaning, and anti-glare functionalities that are all optically transparent, thereby increasing the overall functionality.

Morph-on-Demand Tow Hose.           NanoSonic’s hydrophone hosewall for sonar arrays pro­vides shape-changing and strum-reducing functionality in a durable, low-density polymer matrix resin material that enhances sonar performance and is resistant to solvents.

HYBRIDSIL Diver Armour.             NanoSonic’s high-performance diver armour coating provides protec­tion to dry suits from lacerations, abrasion and punctures while providing armour capabilities.

Zyvex Marine, USA is the pioneer of the 54’ boat Piranha; manufactured using carbon nanotube-enhanced carbon fibre materials; that weighs 8,000 pounds as against a boat with traditional materials that would have weighed 40,000 pounds.  The Piranha has considerable application in anti-piracy operations apart from routine naval tasks. It can carry 15000 pounds of material.

Altairnano’s program with the US Navy focuses on developing, testing, and deploying a nano structured Lithium-Titanate based battery as an uninterruptible power supply on Navy’s missile destroyers enabling single generator operations. The application is likely to result in an annual fuel cost savings in excess of $1.5 million per ship.

Nanotechnology is permeating in the commercial arena at a tremendous pace; an indicator is the fivefold expansion of Nano-business, from $32 billion to $150 billion, during 2006 to 2008. It is also going to radically transform the maritime combat space profoundly in near future, therefore it is imperative to take cognisance of this enabling technology and prepare for incorporating it naval weapon systems and doctrines for winning battles at sea.

In the words of Soviet Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevskiy,

“New weapons of warfare call for the total and radical reorganisation of methods of warfare, and he who falls asleep during this process of reorganization may never wake up.”

————————–

[1] Economist, The (2002), “Trouble in Nanoland, The Economist.com: 5 Dec 2002” http://www. economics. com/science /displaystory. cfm?story _ id=14774 4 5

[2] DoTI (2002), “New Dimensions for Manufacturing: UK Strategy for Nanotechnology. Report of the UK Advisory Group on Nanotechnology Applications”, Department of Trade and Industry: UK

[3] 1ibid

[4] Saxl, O. (2000) “Opportunities for Industry in the Application of Nanotechnology: London, UK: Office of Science and Technology, A report for The Institute of Nanotechnology, April 2000  http://www.nano.org.uk/contents.html

[5] 4 ibid

[6] Miller, D. (2001), “Five Technologies You Need to Know, The Industry Standard: 21 May 2001”, http://www.thestandard .com/article/0,1902,24308,00.html

[7] Forrest, D. (1989), “Regulating Nanotechnology Development, Foresight Institute: 23 Mar 1989”, :http://www.foresight.org /NanoRev/Forrest1989.html

[8] Reynolds, G.H. (2002), “Forward to the Future: Nanotechnology and Regulatory Policy, San Francisco, CA, USA: Pacific Research Institute”,  http://www.pacificresearch.org/pub/sab/techno/forward_to_ nanotech.pdf

[9] DoTI (2002), “New Dimensions for Manufacturing: UK Strategy for Nanotechnology. Report of the UK Advisory Group on Nanotechnology Applications”, Department of Trade and Industry: UK

[10] Harper, T. (2002), “The Nanotechnology Arms Race: Why Nobody Wants to be Left Behind: 14 Nov 2002”,  http://nanotechweb.org/articles/column/1/11/1/1

[11] Smith, R.H. (1996), “Molecular Nanotechnology: Research Funding Sources”, Nanotechnology Magazine; 2 (6)

[12] ETC Group (2002A), “No Small Matter! Nanotech Particles Penetrate Living Cells and Accumulate in Animal Organs: ETC Group Communiqué, (76) May/June 2002”,   URL:http://www.etcgroup.org /documents/Comm_NanoMat_July02.pdf

[13] Miles, I. and Jarvis, D. (2001), “Nanotechnology – A Scenario for Success in 2006. Teddington, UK: HMSO. National Physical Laboratory Report Number: CBTLM 16”,  http://libsvr.npl.co.uk /npl_web/pdf/ cbtlm16.pdf

[14] DoTI (2002), “New Dimensions for Manufacturing: UK Strategy for Nanotechnology. Report of the UK Advisory Group on Nanotechnology Applications”, Department of Trade and Industry: UK

[15] Roco, M.C., and Bainbridge, W.S. (2001), “Societal Implications of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology”, Arlington, VA, USA: National Science Foundation http://www.wtec.org/loyola/nano/NSET. Societal.Implications/nanosi.pdf

[16] Dunn, John (2004) “A Mini Revolution,” Food Manufacture, September 1, 2004. http://www.foodmanufacture. co.uk/news/fullstory. mini_ aid php/ /472/A_ revolution.html

[17] Callahan, Shannon L.(2000), “Nanotechnology in a New Era of Strategic Competition”, Joint Force Quarterly,26: 1-4-110

[18] Malsch (2004), “Shimon Peres dreams of a nanowar,” news 16 Apr. 2004. http://www.nanoforum.org

[19] Gartner, John. “Military Reloads with Nanotech.” Technology Review, an MIT Enterprise, January 21, 2005. http://www.technologyreview.com/computing/14105/page1/

[20] Yang, Guangcheng, Fude Nie, Jinshan Li, Qiuxia Guo and Zhiqiang Qiao. “Preparation and Characterization of Nano-NTO Explosive.” Journal of Energetic Materials, 25, 2007.

[21] Tappan, B.C., S.F. Son and D.S. Moore. “Nano-Aluminium Reaction with Nitrogen in the Burn Front of Oxygen-Free Energetic Materials.” Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, American Institute of Physics, 2005.

[22] Bourzac, Katherine. “More Energy in Batteries.” Technology Review, an MIT Enterprise, November 6, 2009. http://www.technologyreview.com/energy/23893/

[23] Hamilton, Tyler. “Battery Breakthrough?” Technology Review, an MIT Enterprise, January 22, 2007. http://www.technologyreview.com/biztech/18086/,

 

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