4. Trends and Developments in Naval Weaponry

(Published article in SP’s Naval Forces Apr 2012)

Modern blue water navies have the ability to project a sustainable threat in 3 dimensions; namely sub-surface, surface and airborne; at large distances across seas, far away from their home ports. This in turn implies integral capabilities of blue water navies to trounce threats; posed from under water, surface and air; to their constituent units, while carrying out their assigned tasks. In the author’s opinion the concept of ‘limited area ocean dominance in three dimensions’ is likely to change to ‘limited area oceanic-space dominance’ in the next decade as the navies grapple with satellite based surveillance and weapon systems of the enemy and acquire wherewithal to counter threats to their operations from space as well.

The aim of this article, however, is to dwell upon trends of three major classes of weapons currently in the armoury of a naval ship to tackle threats from underwater, surface and the air. The discussion therefore will focus on the naval gun in dual role, the heavy weight torpedo and the cruise missile.

The Naval Gun

The Naval gun made its appearance sometime in the 16th century on board ‘Galleys’ which enabled them to fight enemy ships and also carry out attacks against shore based fortresses. Advances in chemistry and metallurgy by middle of the 19th century led not only to heavier and larger calibre naval guns but also to solid shots being replaced by explosive filled shells. The  increase in calibre of the naval gun however was somewhat countered by the advent of the quick firing gun, the ships started carrying both a light QF gun (~6 inches calibre) as well as a heavy medium  calibre main gun (~12 inches calibre). In the 20th century the improvements in the rate of fire of big guns made the navies to switch over to ‘all big-gun’ battleships. The rise in calibre of guns (to as much as 18.1 inches in case of Japanese Yamamoto!) was however halted post WW II with the arrival of the aircraft carrier and the surface to surface missile. With the emphasis shifting to the missile, the naval gun lost its place as the main armament of the battleship. Modern warships usually carry a 3 inch to 5 inch calibre gun capable of anti-surface, shore bombardment and anti air missions and/or a rapid firing small calibre gun for anti missile and anti air defence.

Current developments in the naval gun are based upon two approaches, one, that the gun would only have a secondary role to play as compared to the missiles and the carrier based aircraft, It would be useful in shore bombardment and for use against smaller ships, and second that the naval gun would still have a general purpose potential as an anti-aircraft, anti-missile and anti fast missile boat weapon. The former has led to the American 5” Mark 45 and the British 4.5”Mk.8 (20-25 rpm at ~25 Tons), and the later to the development of the widely used Italian Oto Melara 76.2 mm (120 rpm, 7.5 Tons in super rapid version) amongst others.

The 127mm Oto Melara, offered by the Italians; with a firing rate of 45 rpm and total weight of 22 Tons and ability to fire the ammunition of American 5” Mark 45; is an attempt to combine both approaches. Further, the Vulcano rounds (HEFSDS) are a family of long range rounds for the Oto Melara127 mm gun. These include, GPS/IMU guided ammunition capable of engaging land based surface targets at a range beyond 100 km and unguided, 70 km range ammunition with an infrared seeker, terminally guided version, for the engagement of surface naval targets.

The Russians have developed three fast firing automatic guns, AK-176M: L/59 calibre, 120 rpm, AK-100: L/59, 60 rpm, and AK-130: L/54, 84 rpm calibres. The favourite appears to be the 100mm A190 (E) variant which is claimed to offer three times the accuracy of AK-100 with 80 rpm, apart from the unguided shells, it is also available with rocket-assisted and guided and long-range shells.

Trend

The naval gun has moved towards a general purpose role with the current developments leading to medium calibre, lighter weight, swifter rate of fire and more potent longer range ammunition. As technology advances, the gun mount weight will get further reduced and the rate of fire enhanced, the general purpose naval gun will continue to be in use for anti surface, anti aircraft, anti missile and naval gun fire support roles albeit with much smarter munitions.

The above developments indicate that the naval gun is apparently not going to be discarded in favour of the missiles in near future, at least not until the missiles become cost beneficial as compared to the naval gun.

Torpedoes

The Spar Torpedo was perhaps the first torpedo designed to attack a target. It comprised of a long spar (~ 30 ft) with an explosive fitted at the end. This torpedo would be positioned underwater in the forward section of a warship and detonated when it came in contact with the target ship. The explosive would usually rip open the hull below the waterline. The USS Housatonic is understood to have been sunk by Confederate submarine H L Hunley using a spar torpedo.

The word torpedo had been associated with various types of hidden explosive devices in the past like land mines, sea mines and booby traps etc till the self propelled torpedo appeared on the scene and claimed the word exclusively. The self propelling torpedo is perhaps the most feared of underwater weapons against ships and submarines, since its invention in 1870s.

The heavy weight torpedo (HWT) is the weapon of choice for the submarines not only against enemy ships but also against moving /static bottomed enemy submarines. HWTs are also carried by ships for attacking submarines.

The torpedoes are an embodiment of a synergetic mix of engineering disciplines ranging from mechanics, hydraulics, electronics, acoustics, explosive chemistry etc. to sophisticated software and computing. Their development has therefore involved differences in propulsion designs from steam engines to electrical motors to thermal engines and rocket motors. The control and guidance systems have also evolved from simplistic mechanical/ hydraulic to sophisticated electronic and onboard computer based systems. The guidance has further diversified in to self guided and wire guided varieties. The simple straight runners have given way to active passive homers and wake homers to counter moving targets. The warheads have moved from minol based to TNT/RDX/Al and now on to insensitive explosives with a life of over 40 years. The warheads over the years have been fitted with simple contact exploders, to acoustic influence and magnetic influence proximity fuses. The diameter of the torpedoes has ranged from 324mm to 483mm to 650mm, and before settling for internationally acceptable 533mm. Interestingly with the advent of microelectronics space has never been a constraint for the torpedo and electronic/ software updates always get comfortably accommodated in the torpedo.

A major technical feature that sets apart a torpedo from a missile is the fact that a practice torpedo is recoverable for reuse, this enables excellent weapon capability assessment, crew training as well as analysis of vital firing geometry, and it makes torpedo practice firings far more cost effective and lucrative as compared to missiles.

Few of the note worthy heavy weight torpedoes are the American Mk 48 Adcap, the Italian Blackshark , the German DM2A4 and the Russian 53-65 K oxygen torpedo. A brief comparison of their major characteristics is given below:-

 

 

Torpedo

 

 

Country

 

Propulsion

 

Guidance

 

Homing

 

Proximity Fuze

 

Speed/Range

MK 48 ADCAP

USA

Otto Fuel

Wire

Acoustic

Magnetic

55Kts/38Km

Blackshark

Italy

Electrical

Wire

Acoustic

Multi-freq acoustic

50Kts/50Km

DM2A4

Germany

Electrical

Wire

Acoustic

Magnetic

50Kts/50Km

53-65 K

Russia

Kerosene-Oxygen Turbine

Wake homing

45Kts/19Km

 

Trends

The torpedo has been evolving with leaps in technology but some characteristics towards which the designers want the HWT to head towards are:-

-faster speeds, at least 50% faster than the target ships and submarines (~over 60 Kts). Quieter signature, such that a slow moving or a bottomed submarine may not detect its presence till it is impossible to outsmart it.

-better reliability, in detection, quicker in acquisition, and firm in tracking, of the target.

-enhanced ranges of operation (>100 Kms)

-smarter electronics, so that its counter-countermeasures are effective in out manoeuvring the decoys and evading tactics.

-deadlier in attack, so that its lethality radius in proximity detonation increases  beyond the 4-10 meters existing today.

The costs continue to go up with new features and advancements, but with more and more modular assemblies the maintenance is becoming easier.

The vagaries of the medium (underwater acoustics) leading to injection of uncertainties in the fire control solutions would ensure that the torpedo will continue to be in the weapon outfits of ships and submarines till the underwater threat exists.

Cruise Missiles

The cruise missile owes it origins to the German V1/V2 rockets and mainly to the fact that manned aircraft missions had proved to be very expensive during the wars (loss of trained fighter pilots as well as expensive aircraft). Unfortunately the cruise missile development until the 1970s resulted only in unreliable and inaccurate outcomes which were not acceptable to the armed forces. Cruise missiles overcame their inherent technical difficulties and owe their tremendous success and popularity to some of the technological advances in the fields of:-

-propulsion, namely small turbofan jet engines resulted in smaller and lighter airframes.

-miniaturisation of electronic components, led to much smaller on board   computers thus to much better guidance and control abilities.

– high density fuels and much better explosives and smaller warheads.

Cruise missiles have become weapons of choice at sea because of their ability to fly close to the sea surface at very high speeds (sub-sonic/supersonic), formidable wave point programming and lethal explosive capabilities. These make the missiles very difficult to detect and counter at sea. Some of the naval cruise missiles worth mentioning are the Brahmos, the Tomahawk, the Club and the Exocet family. A brief comparison is given below:-

 

 

 Missile  Tomahawk Brahmos Club Exocet
 Country  USA India-Russia Russia France
 Weight  1200 Kg 2500-3000 Kg 1300-2300 Kg 670 Kg
 Warhead  450 Kg 300 Kg 400 Kg 165 Kg
 Range  450 Km 290 Km 300 Km 180 Km
 Speed  880 Km/h 3675 Km/h 735-3675 Km/h 1134 Km/h
 Guidance  GPS,TERCOM,DSMAC Inertial, Active Radar Inertial, Active Radar Inertial, Active Radar

 

Trends

It appears that the trend towards hypersonic scramjet cruise missiles will continue to gather momentum and such missiles could be in the naval inventories by 2020. Coupled with hypersonic missiles would be real time target data updating and guidance by extremely fast computers and satellite based systems. The kinetic energy of hypersonic cruise missiles would be a lethality multiplier against targets at sea and therefore such a missile would be a formidable weapon without a credible countermeasure as on date. The costs continue to increase with new developments; however maintenance requirements appear to be reducing with canisterised missiles.

The proliferation of precision guided missiles would continue to increase with the spread of globalisation.

Looking Beyond 2020

Two critical factors which would have wide ranging impact on naval armament in the next decade, pertain to firstly the construction of the weapon perse, and secondly to efficient deployment of the weapon in the zone of conflict. These are namely the impact of nanotechnology and net work centric warfare (NCW).

Nanotechnology Almost all disciplines of engineering have been impacted by the advances in nanotechnology and therefore naval armament technology is no exception. Specifically, usage of high energy nanomaterials in batteries, propellants, fuels, triggering devices and warheads, will make the weapons faster, longer ranged and much more lethal. Incorporation of nanotechnology in computing, communications, sensor technology, signal processing etc would see advent of much smarter weapons than today. The physical size would also see a significant downward trend leading to lesser production costs; this coupled with very high precision would reduce the costs of engagement per target.

NCW   One of the major limiting problems faced today by naval forces is to accurately detect, acquire, track and attack (DATA) enemy targets under all weather conditions. Further due to the presence of human interfaces at various stages of the DATA cycle introduces time based inaccuracies/ inefficiencies as real time information is not available with operators. Net work centric warfare has the capability to drastically cut down inefficiencies in the DATA cycle as NCW structured weapons would provide for sharing of real time target information between weapons as well as between units engaging them. This would permit course correction of guided weapons even after their release and up to final impact. With NCW the PGMs would be amenable to in flight trajectory correction and thus enhance the ability to attack fast manoeuvring targets. NCW weapons would be available by the next decade.

Only navies, with both nano technology and NCW enabled weapons, would be able to effectively accomplish ‘limited oceanic space dominance’.

 

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