2. ‘Green Shoots’ of Synergy – The Indian Naval Experience

(Published article in Defence and Security Alert Feb 2012)

“….developing critical technologies and capabilities is vital to enhancing the nation’s strategic flexibility, and developing indigenous armament systems will not only give our armed forces a competitive edge, but also strengthen the nation economically and industrially.”Adm Nirmal Verma, Chief of the Naval Staff, 24 Nov 2010.

The Government in its Defence Production Policy has highlighted the following objectives:-

(i) To achieve substantive self reliance in the design, development and production of equipment/ weapon systems/ platforms required for defence in as early a time frame as possible;

(ii) To create conditions conducive for the private industry to take an active role in this endeavour; and

(iii) To enhance the potential of SMEs in indigenization and to broaden the defence R&D base of the country.

The aim of this article is not to, highlight problems in defence acquisitions, bring out policy deficiencies or inadequacies of public/private industry in delivering a quality product on time, but to seek ‘green shoots’ of synergy specific to the Indian Navy in an otherwise grim procurement and outfitting scenario.

The Wikipedia defines the arms industry as a global industry and business which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology and equipment. It comprises government and commercial industry involved in research, development, production, and service of military material, equipment and facilities. Arms producing companies, also referred to as defence companies or military industry, produce arms mainly for the armed forces of states. Departments of government also operate in the arms industry, buying and selling weapons, munitions and other military items. Products include guns, ammunition, missiles, military aircraft, military vehicles, ships, electronic systems, and more. The arms industry also conducts significant research and development. However the sale and purchase of arms, is not just a matter of price negotiations but involves complex strategic foreign policy considerations, economics, and a host of other issues, meaning thereby that, sufficient buying capacity alone may not get the buyer the desired armament  or the assurance for spares and maintenance. Therefore it is imperative for a country like India to develop indigenous armament capability and strive for self reliance in this field. In the indigenous armament arena, synergy amongst the procurement agency, the designer & developer and the production agency is of great importance, this is a lesson that our armed forces have learned with experience.

A Strategic ‘Green Shoot’

A  very prominent strategic ‘green shoot’, which has perhaps not got due attention is synergy achieved by Indian Navy with DRDO, SAIL and private industry, resulting in development and production of  strategic steel for all  indigenous warships.

The Indian Naval fleet consists of ships of both eastern and western origin, which use different grades of structural steel, leading to import of various grades of steel for maintenance and repair. This had led to obvious problems in timely procurement, inventory management and non availability with foreign vendors etc. Further even for the ships under construction in Indian shipyards, a large component of steel used had to be imported. The Indian Navy felt compelled to seek indigenous development of Warship Building Steel if it wanted to remain a builders navy and ensure timely induction of warships without depleting its operational fleet.

IHQ-MoD(N) partnered with Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Hyderabad and HQATVP in development of DMR 249A steel plates, bulb structural sections etc. for ships and submarines. M/s Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) and M/s Essar Steel have been successful in rolling DMR 249A steel plates and M/s Krishna Industries, the bulb bars. The Indian Navy has also associated with Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL), Ambernath (Thane) in developing indigenous weld consumables, in various weld categories for welding of DMR 249A steel.

The Indian Navy, on successful completion of this project, has decided to use DMR 249A grade steel for all its warship building / repair activities. Further this indigenously produced DMR 249A grade steel will by and large replace all other steels in use in the Indian Navy. It is understood that orders for over 45000 tons of such steel have already been executed by SAIL alone.

‘Green Shoots’ in Naval Armament 

The Indian Navy has been committed to its goal of self reliance and indigenisation also in the field of armament and ammunition. It has been providing active support, at all stages, namely, design, development, production and induction of armament by laying down achievable SQRs and positioning high calibre officers to DRDO Laboratories and production agencies to assist during development and production. The Indian Navy has put in place a three pronged strategy to achieve the goal of self reliance in armaments and ammunition.

The Ab-initio Approach

The Indian Navy started positioning its officers at DRDO laboratories for naval projects since the late seventies. This effort resulted in a synergy which has borne fruit in development of an indigenous air launched torpedo system “Torpedo Advanced Light” (TAL). Encyclopaedia Britannica defines torpedo,  as a ‘cigar-shaped, self-propelled underwater missile, launched from a submarine, surface vessel, or airplane and designed for exploding upon contact with the hulls of surface vessels and submarines’. It goes on to explain that a ‘modern torpedo contains intricate devices to control its depth and direction according to a preset plan or in response to signals received from an outside source, as well as a device that detonates the explosive-filled warhead when it strikes its target or comes close to it’. Thus it can be appreciated that the torpedo, is a highly complex underwater weapon, utilising a synergetic mix of technologies like hydraulics, electronics, acoustics, explosives, mechanics, power systems, computers, structural engineering etc. It is associated with its underwater sensors, fire control systems, launchers and test benches. On completion of the development process of TAL the design has been transferred to public and private industry for production.

Spinoffs of this synergetic effort between the Indian Navy, DRDO and associated private industry have resulted in development of several front-end technologies for the first time. Composites, titanium alloys, compact high power sea water activated batteries, contra rotating DC propulsion motors, hybrid control and guidance motors, sensor instrumentation packages etc were developed and produced indigenously. The TAL torpedoconsists of 95% of indigenous components and sub-systems.

This synergetic approach of the Indian Navy has also led to design, development and production of various types of mines, propulsion batteries, torpedo decoys, and a spectrum of explosive stores such as boosters, sustainers, pyrotechnics, and pyro charges as import substitution and also for use in indigenous armament.

Non availability of certain critical technologies has been an area of concern for the Indian Navy, to overcome this, the Indian Navy and DRDO have commenced joint design development, and production with reputed international manufacturers, the Long Range Surface to Air missile project is one such example, which would significantly increase participation by Indian industry. A word about the Brahmos supersonic missile would not be out of place here, as it is a unique joint venture between the Indian and Russian governments. The basic reasons for its success can be pegged to mutual sharing of core competencies, continued support of both governments, special arrangements in the JV for its management and functioning, integration of public-private industries as a consortium and most importantly involvement of the Indian Navy from the very first trial launch onwards. The Indian Naval initiative in fast tracking the trials by providing INS Rajput as a trial platform enabled M/s Brahmos to leapfrog the development/technical/user trial cycle, leading to signing of the first contract with Indian Navy just after about 10 firings as against over 20 trial firings which had been planned initially. Needless to say ‘Green Shoots’ in synergy have led to an enviable success story. This is, perhaps the most impressive of synergies that the Indian Navy has generated.

TOT Route with Ordnance Factories and DPSUs

The Government’s Defence Production Policy has the following objectives:-

(i) To achieve substantive self reliance in the design, development and production of equipment/ weapon systems/ platforms required for defence in as early a time frame as possible;

(ii) To create conditions conducive for the private industry to take an active role in this endeavour; and

(iii) To enhance the potential of SMEs in indigenization and to broaden the defence R&D base of the country.

As per the policy, indigenous design, development and manufacture will be given preference in order to achieve these objectives. Enhanced participation of the Indian private sector industry in the design and development of defence equipment would also be encouraged to build a robust defence industrial base. Further to achieve synergies and increase capabilities in producing state-of-the-art Defence equipment; formation of consortia, joint ventures and public private partnerships etc. will be encouraged.

Indian Ordnance Factories Organisation is more than 200 years old, with the first factory at Cossipore having been established in 1801. The organization has 39 Ordnance Factories with two more being set up at Nalanda and Korwa. The organisation has over the years progressed from labour intensive manual operations to Highly Automated Computer Based manufacturing systemsand the emphasis has shifted from production of basic and intermediate inputs to production of finished stores and the organization has emerged as the system integrator.

The Ordnance Factories along with Defence PSUs have been periodically modernising and upgrading their capabilities whilst widening their product range. They have acquired capabilities in various fields through transfer of technology and have also developed a large number of major products (like Kavach for the Navy) on their own. Over a period of time, Defence PSUs and Ordnance Factories have developed a wide production base, through outsourcing, in the private industry which includes a large number of medium and small scale enterprises, apart from large scale industries. To capitalise on this, the Navy decided to actively support TOTs with international OEMs, which has resulted in building of indigenous capabilities, optimum utilisation of created facilities and better cost effectiveness.

The successful production of AK630 and SRGM guns, heavy and light torpedo tube launchers, ammunition for naval guns of various calibres bears testimony to the correctness of this approach. It is hoped that the in house R&D efforts of the Defence PSUs and Ordnance Factories would provide value additions and upgrades in near future and give the required impetus to the indigenous effort.

Supporting Private Industry

Indian Navy has directly developed various vendors for its requirement of fast moving armament components by providing direct design and engineering solutions. Notable amongst these are hi-tech silver zinc and sea water activated batteries for torpedoes and missiles through indigenous battery manufactures. These are no ordinary batteries. They are complex systems propelling torpedoes weighing above 1.5 tons underwater at very high speeds and endurance.

Quality Plays a Leading Role in Generating Synergy

In the armament world, it is of vital importance that the armament and ammunition function as designed, over the specified environmental conditions, throughout the life of the armament. In view of the peculiar harsh environment which the Indian Navy encounters at sea, it is very particular about the quality parameters of armament it procures, and for this it has a quality component in Director General of Naval Armament Inspection, DGNAI, with its integral team of quality professionals, reporting directly to the service (VCNS). DGNAI, under the Indian Navy is the only QA agency, amongst the three services, that is responsible to the user for assuring quality of naval armament through its entire life, from “Womb to Tomb” i.e from the design, development, manufacture, in-service usage and finally to disposal. The role of DGNAI is specific to in-service inspection, quality assurance, testing and proof of naval armament stores such as, all types / versions of missiles, torpedoes both heavy weight and light weight, mines, bombs, depth charges, Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) rockets, Chaff, torpedo decoys, guns ordnance, various pyrotechnic stores, torpedo tubes and rocket launchers.  These tasks are performed by DGNAI during the course of development, production in India & abroad and in-service maintenance, repair, exploitation and failure investigation.

The Indian Navy has this integral component of trained quality professional in all relevant ordnance factories, DRDO laboratories, and also assisting the private industry manufacturing naval armament components by giving timely and constructive inputs and resolving technical issues through the local Naval Armament Inspectorates.

A few representative examples covering a broad spectrum of technologies have been presented in this article to highlight the ongoing efforts of the Indian Navy. Efforts in the fields of general engineering areas are numerous as they cover items necessary for running and maintenance of a fighting platform, it only strengthens the view that sprouting of abundant ‘Green Shoots’ are going to convert the barren fields into fertile indigenisation green lands soon.

The synergy ‘Green Shoots’ owe their success to the involvement and commitment of the Indian Navy to self reliance and indigenisation from the grass roots levels.

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