17. Warship Design and Weaponisation

View My Milblogging.com Profile

(Published article in Defence and Security of India Feb/Mar 2013)

“We Shall Build Good Ships Here; At A Profit If We Can, At A Loss If We Must, But Always Good Ships.”
Collis Potter Huntington.

In 1886 Collis Potter Huntington decided to build a shipyard which would be known in the world for the quality of its ships. He founded the largest privately owned shipyard in the world, the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry dock Company (now Northrop Grumman) in Virginia. Warship design and construction is an iterative and tedious process involving various interconnected and overlapping agencies. Designing for maximum survivability and constructing it in a cost effective manner puts constraints which are not easily surmountable. It is imperative that ‘quality’ be embedded at every stage of design, construction, trials and training for a warship to carry out its tasks far away from its home port, in a hostile sea environment and against an unforgiving enemy. It is against this background that Huttington had stated ‘But always good ships’.

Warships today have to be designed such that they operate at high speeds, with low fuel consumption, manoeuvre & remain stable in extreme weather at sea, and keep firing weapons till their last moment. Survivability requires that a ship’s infra red, acoustic and radar cross section be minimised to avoid detection by the enemy. The primary offensive weapon suit is decided by the role of the warship, say anti submarine, anti surface or strategic. For its defence it would have anti aircraft, anti submarine and anti surface weapons along with dispensers for decoys and electronic warfare packages against the anticipated threats. Larger warships also carry a secondary weapon outfit for a support role if required. The warship has to navigate, communicate and also detect the adversary, this requires placement of large radar, sonar and communication antennae above as well as below the water line, and all these increase the complexities of war ship design.

A warship is generally built to last three to four decades if not more, so the weapon and equipment packages (propulsion, power, sensors, communication etc) have to be so placed that there removal for up-gradation is easy, to match the rapid pace of technology.

A warship to day does not operate independently, in a network centric environment it has to form part of a designated group of ships, which in turn form part of a bigger system of war effort. Thus design of a warship has to take into account the fact that it is capable of operating with other warships and that its protocols are compatible with the other group ships.
Keeping all the above complexities in forefront and to ensure ‘building good ships’ new design approaches need to be studied.

“You are not going to find the ideal boat. You are not even going to have it if you design it from scratch.”
Carl Lane

Systems engineering approach to warship design has shown a way ahead because it is fundamentally an interdisciplinary engineering management process covering all aspects of hardware, software and the human component. It caters for life cycle requirements, and economically beneficial integrated design. A NATO specialist team constituted for setting up systems engineering guidelines for cost effectiveness of new technology in warships has indicated the essential steps of stake holder requirement definition, requirement analysis, synthesis architectural design, verification and validation prior to finalising of design. DARPA is also researching in to novel methods for design and verification of complex systems in its META program. Under this program attempt is being made to devise a model based system engineering framework which can then enable architectural analysis of complex systems during conceptual design itself, leading to a much more robust and reliable system.

Designing for survivability approach advocates, warship design of relatively smaller ships with much higher survivability and better weapons suit .It caters for a more dangerous battle environment, while reducing manpower requirements. This approach brings out a flaw of the reduction of armour plating thickness in the current designs of warships, which has been resorted to for keeping the structural weight low.

Armour plating thickness reduction had taken place earlier as the war at high seas no longer involved close combat and had evolved in to a larger and larger standoff distance battles. However to accommodate more sensors and weapon suits the armour plating thickness is being further compromised, resulting in lesser survivability of the warship in case of a hit. Survivability in war at sea implies ability of a warship to continue carrying out its mission, which in turn implies preventing enemy from detecting and attacking it. Thus requiring reduction of all types of detectible signatures, (Radar, IR, acoustic, magnetic, electronic etc) at the early design stage itself. Further measures of survivability include enhancing floatability after an attack by the enemy; therefore studies at early design stage must assess the anticipated explosive damages, redundancy for systems and requirements of damage control etc. A warship based upon survivability in design, while enhancing firepower and reducing human component, may therefore result in a better option for the future.

Axiomatic design approach puts forth the argument that, currently the design process is an iterative process, in that, several individual attributes are first designed and then integrated, often leading to re-design and finally to a compromise solution. In order to design a warship with much less manpower, some functions would have to be transferred to automation and some functions to the remaining manpower. This needs to be accomplished in a scientific manner such that neither the man nor the machine is over tasked. Axiomatic design consists of four domains namely, the customer domain, the functional domain, the physical domain and the process domain. The axiomatic process requires determining ‘what’ is required in each domain and then specifying ’how’ these requirements are satisfied in the successive domain. This leads to a much better design definition at initial stage itself.

Indian Navy and Warship Design
A major impetus to the Indian Naval Design organisation was given by the then prime minister Mrs Indira Gandhi after her return from the launch of INS Nilgiri at MDL Mumbai in 1968.She directed that the Naval Design Office should design frigates, submarines and other fast craft with futuristic propulsion options including nuclear propulsion. She emphasised the need for synergy between the ship designers and the ship builders and this led to prominence of self reliance in warship design and production in the 1969-74 Defence Plan. The result of this, were the indigenous Godavari Class Type 16 frigates, whose design was accepted in 1975 and the commissioning of the first ship Godavari took place in 1983. The Naval Design team has not looked back since! The latest indigenous ship to join the Indian Navy is the formidable Kolkata class destroyer (project 15A) commissioned in Sept 2012.

Stages of Warship Design in India
The fundamental steps in warship building in India commence with the drafting of the Preliminary Staff Requirements (PSR). This is the result of deliberations between the Naval Staff and the naval designers, taking into account the needs of the Navy based on future threat perceptions and the availability of technologies and industrial capabilities. The PSR includes role, armament, sensors, overall dimensions, speed and endurance etc. There after conceptual design work is undertaken; it includes sifting through various technical alternatives and selecting the most feasible one for the preliminary design. This has detailed schematics and calculations to provide the best design option as per the PSR. It is presented to Naval Staff highlighting areas of give and take with respect to the PSR. A desired preliminary design is arrived at after detailed deliberations. The detailed design work is undertaken thereafter. This involves detailed drawings, hydrodynamic modelling, modifications if required based on modelling studies, layout plans, detailing of specifications and commencement of dialogue with the building shipyard. The shipyard prepares for construction of the warship by making production drawings, procuring jigs, fixtures and equipment that may be required during production.

Modular Ship Construction
“Ships are the nearest things to dreams that hands have ever made, for somewhere deep in their oaken hearts the soul of a song is laid.”
Robert N. Rose
On 2nd Nov 2009, the then Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Nirmal Verma said “We need to revisit the building strategies of the (Defence) shipyards. There is a need to do much more. Construction schedule is where our shipyards lag. The reason for delays is the basic method of construction (adopted by the shipyards),” With respect to modular ship construction being followed by foreign shipyards, he said “This is found to be the most efficient means of ship construction by which time taken for delivery of the platform is minimised and the work at the dry dock is optimised.”
Currently the Defence Shipyards build ships by launching the hull in water after welding it and there after the shipyard’s craftsmen install machinery and equipment in highly cramped spaces. This has also contributed to inordinate delays in delivery of warships to the Navy as ships have taken nearly ten years to build. However the major shipyards like MDL and GRSE are already in process of modernising by moving to modular ship building wherein 300ton blocks are manufactured independently along with their equipment, electrical wiring, pipelines etc and then fitted to neighbouring blocks precisely, to finally form the warship. It is expected that MDL’s modular shipyard costing Rs. 824cr would be commissioned by June 2013, there after it is expected that destroyers would be constructed in 72 months and frigates in 60 months.
One of the areas defence shipyards need to study is outsourcing while retaining essential technical manpower for critical defence related work. With the Indian industry maturing rapidly, many of the tasks like crew accommodation, painting, wiring, piping etc may be totally outsourced, however, with a mechanism to ensure that quality of work is ensured. Both, cost benefits and better quality, should form the basis of outsourcing in warship building endeavours. Shipyards would have to identify and involve major contractors from ship design stage itself and have the production designs ready prior to commencing construction. Fundamentally Indian shipyards should ‘Build good ships’.
Indian Naval Ships and Craft on Order on Indian Shipyards
MDL: 3 Project-15A Kolkata class destroyers, follow on four Project-15B destroyers, one Project-17 Shivalik class frigate and 6 Project-75 Scorpene submarines.

GRSE: 4 ASW Corvettes of Project-28, 6 Inshore Patrol Vessel of the Rajshree class and 8 Landing Craft Utility.

GSL: 4 Offshore Patrol Vessels, 6 of 105-metre Offshore Patrol Vessels and one 90-metre Offshore Patrol Vessel.

HSL: 12 Inshore Patrol Vessels of two different classes, 3 of 50-ton Bollard Pull Tugs and one 25-ton Bollard Pull Tug.

CSL: Indigenous Aircraft Carrier IAC.
Pipav Shipyard: 5 NOPVs
ABG Shipyard: Cadet Training Ship.

Weapon Systems
Weapon systems on a warship depend upon its assigned role and mission in war. Generally warships carry weapons to cater for threats emanating from the air, surface and underwater. For air threats like sea skimming missiles and air attacks, ships have surface to air missiles, guns in dual role, and close in weapon systems/point defence systems (multi barrel guns, short range missiles). For surface threats ships have surface to surface missiles and guns. For anti submarine warfare ships have torpedoes and ASW rockets. Warships carry decoys for deception of enemy torpedoes and oncoming missiles, these comprise of chaff dispensers, IR decoys, acoustic decoys etc. The warships also have an extended weapon capability on the helicopters they house on board; this could be a light weight torpedo, rockets or small calibre guns. The advent of unmanned vehicles will introduce another facet of weaponisation.

Naval weapons are complex in design due to the corrosive sea environment in which they have to operate, severe space and weight restrictions, and problems of stabilisation as the ship rolls, pitches and yaws. Further, as with all weapons, they cannot be procured just by paying the currency required by the manufacturers. The pricing of weapons is based upon the need of the country, its relations with the producing country, its position in the world at large and other considerations like, foreign policy issues, type of technology, availability of similar systems for sale in other countries etc.
In case of India it has been the experience that the weapon system it desires is not available for purchase, alternate offered is exorbitantly priced, and what is affordable is invariably not required by India. The ideal solution is local availability of weapon systems which will ensure maintainability, timely upgrades and modularity for warship design. The indigenous effort has still not matured to provide viable weapon system or even subsystem solution within the time frame and the budgeted costs. Economic viability, arms export policy and non availability of technological prowess, appear to be the main reasons. Thus India is left with no alternative but to import and also prolong use of existing armament by process of life extension, constrained with improper/insufficient spares, inadequate documentation and testing methods. Weapons thus continue to be deployed well beyond their useful life without ascertaining if or at all, or to what extent they meet the designed parameters.

The defence procurement procedure (DPP) has been promulgated to enable the Armed forces to timely procure the desired equipment with least drain on national resources. The DPP has been regularly revised to cater for Indian conditions. It has been structured so that the Indian defence industrial base is progressively strengthened by offsets, TOT and JV regimes. However ‘The Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan’, LTIPP, of the armed forces, is an indicative acquisition plan for the next 15 years but without any commitment of funds or frozen requirements.

The weapon procurement procedure commences with drawing the staff requirements, which the DRDO and industry claim are unrealistic, the armed forces justify it, as weapons are used over decades and therefore once procured they should remain current and amenable to technological upgrades as long as possible. Perhaps the only way the Government of India can resolve this issue is through policy level intervention by firstly categorising external threats at two levels depending upon their severity & extent and thereafter specifying two types of procurement, one (say P1) to the staff requirements of the Armed Forces and the other to a level (say P2 through local sources only) which meets at least 75% of the staff requirement. Killability studies may be carried out to assess the numbers (with sufficient redundancies) of P1 and P2 types required to meet the threats in their entirety. Further it can incentivise the P2 procurement by increasing the defence budget proportionately and set up an accountability mechanism for timely delivery, maintainability and functionability of the same.
In conclusion, it suffices to state that warship design is undergoing a change today forced by factors like economic slowdown, emergence of littoral threats, reduction in blue water engagements, development of powerful sensors and weapons as well as advent of unmanned vehicles on the horizon. There is a need to look into newer design methods like systems engineering design approach, designing for survivability and axiomatic design principles etc. rather than adhering to the telescopic iterative methodology in use in India. The shipyards need to switch over to modular construction to ensure timely and cost effective deliveries. The shipyards also need to carry out a periodic review of outsourcing, leveraging upon the increasing technological capabilities of the Indian industry, this will help in reducing the long term costs and assure quality of equipment & fittings. Lastly there may be a need for policy level intervention into weapon procurement to ensure that the Defence Industrial Base in India is strengthened to levels where it can sustain the requirements of the Armed forces.
The shipyards, then, would be able to ‘Build better and better Ships’ for the Indian Navy.
//
http://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/show_ads.js

246 thoughts on “17. Warship Design and Weaponisation”

  1. Can I simply say what a relief to discover someone who really understands what they’re discussing online. You actually realize how to bring a problem to light and make it important. More people must read this and understand this side of your story. I was surprised you’re not more popular given that you most certainly possess the gift.

    Like

  2. There are actually a handful of fascinating points in time on this web page but I don’t know if these center to heart. There’s some validity but I’m going to take hold opinion until I check into it additional. Superb short article , thanks and we want significantly a lot more! Integrated with FeedBurner likewise

    Like

  3. I am usually to blogging and that i in fact appreciate your site content material. The short article has seriously peaks my interest. My goal is to bookmark your internet site and keep checking for new information.

    Like

  4. I really love this!!! Great job but please have in mind that the speed of your website isn’t so good. do not know what happened but it took me some time to be able to access it

    Like

  5. I have not checked in here for some time as I thought it was getting boring, but the last few posts are good quality so I guess Iˇll add you back to my daily bloglist. You deserve it friend 🙂

    Like

  6. Thanks quite a bit for sharing this with all of us you basically know what you will be speaking about! Bookmarked. Kindly also visit my web-site =). We could possess a link exchange contract amongst us!

    Like

  7. Just after study a lot of on the content material with your web site now, we genuinely considerably like your approach of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark web page list and you will be checking back soon. Pls check out my web site likewise and figure out what you look at.

    Like

  8. Hey would you mind letting me know which webhost you’re utilizing? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 different internet browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot quicker then most. Can you suggest a good web hosting provider at a reasonable price? Kudos, I appreciate it!

    Like

  9. I was excited to uncover this website. I want to to thank you for your time for this wonderful read!! I definitely loved every bit of it and i also have you saved to fav to look at new things in your blog.

    Like

  10. I¡¦ll immediately seize your rss as I can’t find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Do you have any? Please permit me understand so that I could subscribe. Thanks.

    Like

  11. Way cool! Some extremely valіd ρoints! I appreciate уou wгiting this
    аrticle plus the гeѕt οf the website iѕ very good.

    Look аt my web-site: Ervin

    Like

  12. My partner and I stumbled over here coming from a different page and thought I may as well check things out. I like what I see so now i am following you. Look forward to looking over your web page for a second time.

    Like

  13. Hello there, just became alert to your weblog through Google, and discovered that it’s definitely informative. I’m gonna watch out for brussels. I’ll be grateful for those who continue this in future. A great deal of folks might be benefited out of your writing. Cheers!

    Like

  14. Keep in the good piece of work, I study few content on this internet site and I think that your website is extremely interesting along with holds sets of amazing info.

    Like

  15. I really appreciate this post. I have been looking everywhere for this! Thank goodness I found it on Google. You have made my day! Thank you again…

    Like

  16. Hiya, I’m really glad I have found this information. Nowadays bloggers publish only about gossips and net and this is really annoying. A good web site with exciting content, that’s what I need. Thanks for keeping this site, I will be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Cant find it.

    Like

  17. An interesting dialogue is worth comment. I feel that it is best to write more on this matter, it may not be a taboo topic but usually individuals are not sufficient to speak on such topics. To the next. Cheers

    Like

  18. Thanks for sharing superb informations. Your site is so cool. I’m impressed by the details that you have on this website. It reveals how nicely you perceive this subject. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for more articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found just the information I already searched everywhere and just couldn’t come across. What a perfect web-site.

    Like

  19. I’m really enjoying the design and layout of your site. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more enjoyable for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a designer to create your theme? Exceptional work!

    Like

  20. Nice post. I learn some thing pretty complex on diverse blogs daily. It can always be stimulating to study content material from other writers and rehearse a thing there. I’d need to use some while making use of content on my blog no matter whether you don’t mind. Natually I’ll give you a link in your net website. Thanks for sharing.

    Like

  21. Good day very cool site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Superb .. I’ll bookmark your web site and take the feeds also…I’m satisfied to seek out numerous helpful info right here in the post, we want develop more strategies on this regard, thank you for sharing.

    Like

  22. you are actually a good webmaster. The site loading pace is incredible. It seems that you are doing any distinctive trick. Also, The contents are masterpiece. you have performed a wonderful process in this matter!

    Like

  23. I’m now not positive where you are getting your info,
    but great topic. I needs to spend a while studying more
    or understanding more. Thanks for wonderful info I used to be searching for
    this info for my mission.

    Like

  24. Hiya, I am really glad I have found this info. Today bloggers publish just about gossips and web and this is really annoying. A good blog with exciting content, that is what I need. Thanks for keeping this website, I’ll be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Cant find it.

    Like

  25. I used to be suggested this web site by means of my cousin. I am now not sure whether or not this post is written by means of him as no one else recognise such distinct about my trouble. You are amazing! Thanks!

    Like

  26. Just want to utter your article is as surprising. The clarity in your post is just superb and i could feign you’re an practiced on this subject. Thriving with your permission allow me to grab your nourish to keep cheery to date with forthcoming column. Merit a million and please clutch by the enjoyable work.

    Like

  27. You could definitely see your skills in the paintings you write. The sector hopes for even more passionate writers like you who aren’t afraid to say how they believe. At all times go after your heart. “In order to preserve your self-respect, it is sometimes necessary to lie and cheat.” by Robert Byrne.

    Like

  28. I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was good. I do not know who you are but definitely you’re going to a famous blogger if you are not already Oczko Cheers!

    Like

  29. Proficient post. I was checking constantly this blog and I am impressed! Bloody caring facts exclusively the form area 🙂 I punctiliousness for such info a lot. I was looking on this predestined info for the benefit of a acutely yearn time. Hold responsible you and most superbly of luck.

    Like

  30. I am really impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it is rare to see a nice blog like this one nowadays

    Like

  31. Simply desire to say your article is as astonishing. The clarity in your collection is severely bonzer and i can put you’re an expert on this subject. Fine-grained with your acceptance subcontract out me to appropriate your feed to keep updated with in the offing post. Thanks a million and like gain on the gratifying work.

    Like

  32. I like this weblog very much, Its a very nice billet to read and find info . “Reason is not measured by size or height, but by principle.” by Epictetus.

    Like

  33. excellent issues altogether, you simply gained a new reader. What may you suggest in regards to your submit that you simply made some days in the past? Any sure?

    Like

  34. Thanks for sharing superb informations. Your website is very cool. I am impressed by the details that you have on this site. It reveals how nicely you perceive this subject. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for more articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found just the info I already searched all over the place and just could not come across. What an ideal website.

    Like

  35. Hiya. Vastly nice website!! Guy .. Beautiful .. Superb .. I’ll bookmark your website and acquire the feeds also…I’m content to locate abundant cooperative in rank here contained by the article. Show gratitude you for sharing..

    Like

  36. I precisely needed to say thanks once again. I do not know what I would have gone through without those concepts provided by you about that concern. It had become a intimidating issue in my circumstances, however , being able to see this professional style you resolved that forced me to cry over contentment. Now i’m grateful for the service and then hope that you are aware of an amazing job that you’re accomplishing educating men and women through the use of a blog. More than likely you haven’t got to know all of us.

    Like

  37. One other thing is that an online business administration course is designed for scholars to be able to easily proceed to bachelors degree education. The Ninety credit certification meets the lower bachelor diploma requirements when you earn the associate of arts in BA online, you’ll have access to the most up-to-date technologies within this field. Several reasons why students need to get their associate degree in business is because they are interested in the field and want to find the general education necessary just before jumping right bachelor college diploma program. Thanks for the tips you really provide in your blog.

    Like

  38. Excellent beat ! I would like to apprentice at the same time as you amend your website, how can i subscribe for a weblog site? The account aided me a appropriate deal. I were tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered shiny transparent concept

    Like

  39. I simply couldn’t leave your web site prior to suggesting that I actually enjoyed the usual information a person supply to your guests? Is going to be again frequently to check up on new posts

    Like

  40. I similar to SuperFresh. It is the finest theme on behalf of delicate blog…thanks for sharing a thorough slant of themes.
    I reflect approximately the themes open at this juncture hooked on the category of elegant, I in fact like.
    You got big slant of cool themes cheery there! Good jobs!

    Like

  41. Thanks for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do some research on this. We got a grab a book from our area library but I think I learned more from this post. I am very glad to see such excellent information being shared freely out there.

    Like

  42. It’s a pity you don’t have a donate button! I’d definitely donate to this outstanding blog! I guess for now i’ll settle for book-marking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to brand new updates and will talk about this blog with my Facebook group. Chat soon!

    Like

  43. Hey! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you if that would be ok. I’m absolutely enjoying your blog and look forward to new updates.

    Like

  44. An intriguing discussion is worth comment. I feel which you must write additional on this topic, it could not be a taboo topic but usually people today aren’t sufficient to speak on such topics. To the next. Cheers

    Like

  45. Hi, Neat post. There is an issue together with your website in web explorer, would test this… IE nonetheless is the market chief and a big portion of other folks will pass over your magnificent writing because of this problem. m21ws53u

    Like

  46. Attractive component of content. I simply stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to claim that I get in fact loved account your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing on your feeds or even I achievement you get entry to constantly quickly.

    Like

  47. Does your blog have a contact page? I’m having trouble locating it but, I’d like to shoot you an email. I’ve got some recommendations for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it improve over time.

    Like

  48. Excellently written article, doubts all bloggers offered the identical content since you, the internet has to be far better place. Please stay the best!

    Like

  49. Good day! I know this is kinda off topic however , I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa? My blog addresses a lot of the same topics as yours and I feel we could greatly benefit from each other. If you’re interested feel free to shoot me an email. I look forward to hearing from you! Superb blog by the way!

    Like

  50. Great blog here! Additionally your website lots up very fast! What web host are you the usage of? Can I am getting your associate hyperlink on your host? I desire my web site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

    Like

  51. I’ll right away snatch your rss as I can not to find your email subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Please allow me recognize so that I may subscribe. Thanks.

    Like

  52. I was suggested this website by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as no one else know such detailed about my difficulty. You’re incredible! Thanks!

    Like

  53. Attractive cross-section of content. I righteous stumbled upon your weblog and in accession capital to assert that I get in point of fact enjoyed account your blog posts. Any path I disposition be subscribing to your feeds and flatten I accomplishment you access uniformly rapidly.

    Like

  54. Good ˇV I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your website. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs and related info ended up being truly simple to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least. Quite unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or anything, site theme . a tones way for your client to communicate. Excellent task..

    Like

  55. Thanks a ton for being my own tutor on this matter. I enjoyed your own article quite definitely and most of all enjoyed reading the way you handled the issues I widely known as controversial. You’re always very kind to readers really like me and help me in my lifestyle. Thank you.

    Like

  56. Thank you, I have recently been looking for info about this subject for a while and yours is the greatest I have found out so far. But, what about the bottom line? Are you sure in regards to the supply?

    Like

  57. Hey There. I institute your blog using msn. This is a unusually sufficiently written article. I’ll be ineluctable to bookmark it and get go to present more of your of use information. Thanks for the post. I will certainly return.

    Like

  58. this website is something that is wanted on the net, somebody with a little originality. useful job for bringing something new to the internet!
    I’d should check with you here. Which isn’t something I often do! I get pleasure from studying a publish that may make individuals think. Additionally, thanks for permitting me to comment!

    Like

  59. Heya i’m for the first time here. I found this board and I find It truly useful & it helped me out a lot. I hope to give something back and help others like you aided me.

    Like

  60. Very efficiently written information. It will be beneficial to everyone who employess it, as well as myself. Keep up the good work – i will definitely read more posts.

    Like

  61. naturally like your web-site but you have to check the spelling on quite a few of your posts. Many of them are rife with spelling problems and I to find it very troublesome to inform the reality however I will surely come again again.

    Like

  62. With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any issues of plagorism or copyright violation? My website has a lot of unique content I’ve either written myself or outsourced but it seems a lot of it is popping it up all over the internet without my authorization. Do you know any methods to help stop content from being stolen? I’d certainly appreciate it.

    Like

  63. I just could not go away your website prior to suggesting that I extremely enjoyed the usual information an individual provide in your guests? Is gonna be back steadily in order to check out new posts.

    Like

  64. naturally like your website however you need to test the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I to find it very bothersome to tell the reality however I’ll certainly come back again.

    Like

  65. Hey there! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing a few months of hard work due to no back up. Do you have any methods to stop hackers?

    Like

  66. I would comparable to thnkx for the efforts you have put in prose this blog. I’m hoping the unchanged high-grade website post beginning you in the upcoming as anyway. All the rage fact your creative script skills has positive me to get my identifiable web position now. Especially the blogging is spreading its wings rapidly. Your engrave up is a vast instance of it.

    Like

  67. I would comparable to thnkx for the efforts you have place in letters this blog. I’m hoping the matching high-grade website send starting you in the upcoming as anyway. Into actuality your creative writing skills has positive me to get my identifiable web site straight away. In fact the blogging is spreading its wings suddenly. Your write positive is a great paradigm of it.

    Like

  68. I similar to this weblog very much, Its any rattling nice spot to learn and incur information. Slang can be a language in which rolls up its fleshlight sleeves, spits about its arms and travels to work. by Carl Sandburg.

    Like

  69. Hey there! I’m at work surfing around your blog from my new iphone 3gs! Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and look forward to all your posts! Keep up the outstanding work!

    Like

  70. I wish to thnkx for your efforts you’ve got put in writing this blog. I ‘m hoping a similar high-grade internet site post via you inside the upcoming as well. Actually your creative composing abilities has inspired me to have my web page now. Really your blogging will be spreading it’s wings fast. Your article is a great example than it

    Like

  71. Thankyou for all your efforts that you have put in this. very interesting information. “The average Ph.D. thesis is nothing but a transference of bones from one graveyard to another.” by J. Frank Dobie.

    Like

  72. absolutely much like your web site and you need to check out the transliteration on a number of of your respective articles. Quite a few are generally rife using spelling challenges and I in finding the idea quite bothersome to express to the fact nevertheless i will unquestionably go back once more.

    Like

  73. We’re a categorize of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community. Your web situate open us with practical information to paintings on. You’ve performed an impressive undertaking and our full troop will perhaps ensue thankful to you.

    Like

  74. Can I just say what a relief to acquire a person who essentially knows what theyre talking about on the internet. You unquestionably know methods to bring an issue to light and make it imperative. Even more many people must read this and recognize this side of the story. I cant believe youre not even more preferred due to the fact you absolutely have the gift.

    Like

  75. I truly appreciate this post. I’ve been looking all over for this! Thank goodness I found it on Bing. You have made my day! Thank you again!

    Like

  76. Somebody essentially assist to construct critically posts I’d state. That is certainly the first time I frequented your website and to this date? I surprised while using the analysis you have made to create this particular placed incredible. Fantastic task!

    Like

  77. I am not positively if it is immediately my machine, on the contrary I am unable to view a quantity of of your images fittingly. I am using Chrome on the contrary a little things are not loading. Social Networking Software

    Like

  78. A person essentially help to make seriously posts I would state. This is the first time I frequented your website page and thus far? I surprised with the research you made to make this particular publish extraordinary. Magnificent job!

    Like

  79. I not to mention my buddies happened to be checking the great pointers located on the blog then suddenly I got a horrible feeling I never expressed respect to the web site owner for those techniques. All of the young men appeared to be thrilled to read through all of them and have in effect extremely been having fun with them. Appreciation for really being very helpful and also for picking such high-quality guides millions of individuals are really needing to know about. Our honest regret for not expressing gratitude to you sooner.

    Like

  80. Usually I do not read article on blogs, however I would like to say that this write-up very pressured me to take a look at and do it! Your writing style has been surprised me. Thank you, quite great article.

    Like

  81. Hi! I’m at work browsing your blog from my new iphone 4! Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and look forward to all your posts! Carry on the great work!

    Like

  82. Just desire to say your article is as astounding. The clarity for your submit is simply nice and that i can suppose you’re an expert on this subject. Well with your permission let me to seize your RSS feed to stay up to date with imminent post. Thanks 1,000,000 and please carry on the rewarding work.

    Like

  83. I sorry for my English.Hi there, I found your web site by means of Google even as searching for a comparable subject, your website came up, it appears great. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

    Like

  84. I was highly pleased to acquire this web-site.I wanted to thanks for your time for this amazing read!! I surely enjoying each and every little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to take a look at new stuff you blog post.

    Like

  85. An fascinating discussion is worth comment. I feel that you need to write more on this matter, it might not be a taboo subject but generally persons are not sufficient to speak on such topics. To the next. Cheersmore tips i found on!

    Like

  86. Hey there! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing many months of hard work due to no data backup. Do you have any solutions to stop hackers?

    Like

  87. I have been exploring for a bit for any high-quality articles or blog posts on this sort of house . Exploring in Yahoo I finally stumbled upon this web site. Reading this information So iˇm glad to exhibit that I have a very excellent uncanny feeling I came upon exactly what I needed. I so much for sure will make sure to donˇt overlook this site and give it a look on a continuing basis.

    Like

  88. I experimented with viewing your web site in my mobile phone and the layout does not seem to be correct. Might wanna check it out on WAP as well as it seems most mobile phone layouts are not really working with your site.

    Like

  89. Great site. Plenty of useful information here. I’m sending it to some friends ans also sharing in delicious. And obviously, thanks on your effort!

    Like

  90. fantastic issues altogether, you simply received a logo new reader. What may you recommend in regards to your publish that you just made a few days in the past? Any sure?

    Like

  91. Thanks for sharing excellent informations. Your site is so cool. I’m impressed by the details that you’ve on this website. It reveals how nicely you perceive this subject. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for extra articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found simply the information I already searched everywhere and simply couldn’t come across. What a perfect site.

    Like

  92. Awesome blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere? A theme like yours with a few simple adjustements would really make my blog shine. Please let me know where you got your theme. Thanks

    Like

  93. I just could not depart your web site before suggesting that I actually enjoyed the standard info a person provide for your visitors? Is going to be back often to check up on new posts

    Like

  94. Just wish to say your article is as amazing. The clearness in your publish is simply spectacular and i could assume you’re a professional in this subject. Fine together with your permission allow me to clutch your RSS feed to stay updated with forthcoming post. Thanks one million and please carry on the enjoyable work.

    Like

  95. I was wondering if you ever thought of changing the page layout of your website? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or two images. Maybe you could space it out better?

    Like

  96. Its such as you read my mind! You seem to know so much approximately this, such as you wrote the ebook in it or something. I think that you can do with a few percent to pressure the message house a bit, however instead of that, this is magnificent blog. An excellent read. I will definitely be back.

    Like

  97. You have brought up a very superb points , thanks for the post. “Beginnings are apt to be shadowy and so it is the beginnings of the great mother life, the sea.” by Rachel Carson.

    Like

  98. I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as no one else know such detailed about my trouble. You are wonderful! Thanks!

    Like

  99. Can I just say what a relief to acquire a person who essentially knows what theyre talking about on the internet. You unquestionably know methods to bring an issue to light and make it imperative. Even more many people must read this and recognize this side of the story. I cant believe youre not even more preferred due to the fact you absolutely have the gift.

    Like

  100. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this website. I am hoping the same high-grade website post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing skills has encouraged me to get my own web site now. Actually the blogging is spreading its wings rapidly. Your write up is a good example of it.

    Like

  101. Please let me know if you’re looking for a writer for your site. You have some really good posts and I feel I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d really like to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please shoot me an e-mail if interested. Kudos!

    Like

  102. Super-Duper blog! I am loving it!! Will be back later to read some more. I am bookmarking your feeds also

    Like

  103. Aw, it was a very good post. In concept I have to devote writing like this moreover – taking time and actual effort to make a great article… but what things can I say… I procrastinate alot through no means seem to get something carried out.

    Like

  104. This really is such a perfect powerful resource that you’re sharing and you simply offer it away without cost. I enjoy taking a look at internet websites that understand the significance of supplying an excellent learning resource for free. I honestly enjoyed looking at this page. Appreciation!

    Like

  105. Itˇs truly a great and useful piece of information. Iˇm glad that you just shared this useful info with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

    Like

  106. In the great pattern of things you’ll receive a B- for hard work. Where exactly you lost everybody was in the specifics. You know, they say, the devil is in the details… And it could not be much more true right here. Having said that, permit me inform you just what exactly did give good results. The text can be incredibly powerful and this is possibly the reason why I am taking the effort to opine. I do not really make it a regular habit of doing that. 2nd, whilst I can see the jumps in reason you come up with, I am definitely not confident of just how you appear to unite the details which make the final result. For right now I will subscribe to your point however hope in the near future you actually connect the facts better.

    Like

  107. I like what you guys are up also. Such smart work and reporting! Keep up the excellent works guys Iˇve incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it will improve the value of my web site 🙂

    Like

  108. Hi! I just would like to give you a big thumbs up for your excellent information you’ve got right here on this post. I will be returning to your website for more soon.

    Like

  109. Thanks for another informative blog. Where else could I get that type of information written in such an ideal way? I have a project that I am just now working on, and I’ve been on the look out for such information.

    Like

  110. I am not used to developing websites and We was thinking if your blog title highly relevant to your articles and also other content really that vital? I detect your title, Khmer Karaoke Superstars does seem spot on using what your blog is about however, I would rather keep my own title much less content descriptive and dependent more all-around site logos. Would you imagine this a very good idea or bad idea? Any help would be greatly highly valued.

    Like

  111. Have you ever considered about adding a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is valuable and all. Nevertheless just imagine if you added some great visuals or videos to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with pics and clips, this website could certainly be one of the very best in its niche. Fantastic blog!

    Like

  112. Oh my goodness! an amazing post dude. Many thanks Even so We’re experiencing problem with ur rss . Do not know why Unable to subscribe to it. Will there be anybody acquiring identical rss issue? Anybody who knows kindly respond. Thnkx

    Like

  113. Youre so cool! I dont suppose Ive read anything like this before. So great to look for out somebody with a couple of original applying for grants this topic. realy i appreciate you for starting this up. this fabulous web site is often a thing that’s essential on the web, somebody with a small originality. effective job for bringing a thing totally new for your net!

    Like

  114. Surely believe that which you stated. Your preferred reason seemed to be on the net the simplest thing to become aware of. I say to you, I unquestionably get annoyed whilst individuals contemplate worries that they just don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the prime as well as defined out the entire thing with no getting side impact , people today can take a signal. Will probably be back to obtain a lot more. Thanks

    Like

  115. Superb issues of your respective stuff, person. I have examine goods ahead of as well as you’re only also great. I comparable to what that you’ve gotten this, appreciate just what youre stating and the way somebody state the idea. You generate it enjoyable and you also still manage to maintain that wise. My spouse and i battle to delay to examine much much more from an individual. It is really a legitimate excellent website.

    Like

  116. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post. Also, I’ve shared your web site in my social networks!

    Like

  117. Thanks a lot for sharing this with all of us you actually know what you’re talking about! Bookmarked. Kindly also visit my website =). We could have a link exchange agreement between us!

    Like

  118. Its approximating you interpret my mind! You appear to get a lot on the subject of this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I ponder that you could perform with a few pics to constrain the message dwelling a bit, but other than that, this is superb blog. An first-rate read. I will definitely live back.

    Like

  119. Dead composed articles, regards for information. “The bravest thing you can do when you are not brave is to profess courage and act accordingly.” by Corra Harris.

    Like

  120. Hi I am so thrilled I found your site, I really found you by accident, while I was browsing on Digg for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would just like to say many thanks for a remarkable post and a all round interesting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to read it all at the moment but I have book-marked it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a great deal more, Please do keep up the excellent work.

    Like

  121. Have you ever thought about writing an e-book or guest authoring on other sites? I have a blog based on the same information you discuss and would love to have you share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would value your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an e-mail.

    Like

  122. Excellent read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing a little research on that. And he just bought me lunch as I found it for him smile Therefore let me rephrase that: Thanks for lunch!

    Like

  123. Can I just say what a relief to acquire a person who essentially knows what theyre talking about on the internet. You unquestionably know methods to bring an issue to light and make it imperative. Even more many people must read this and recognize this side of the story. I cant believe youre not even more preferred due to the fact you absolutely have the gift.

    Like

  124. I simply wanted to appreciate you again. I’m not certain the things that I could possibly have gone through without the type of tips and hints documented by you regarding such a topic. It actually was a very troublesome condition in my circumstances, nevertheless witnessing a skilled strategy you managed it took me to cry for contentment. I’m happier for your support and even wish you comprehend what an amazing job your are carrying out teaching men and women by way of your blog post. I’m certain you’ve never encountered all of us.

    Like

  125. I was highly pleased to acquire this web-site.I wanted to thanks for your time for this amazing read!! I surely enjoying each and every little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to take a look at new stuff you blog post.

    Like

  126. Very efficiently written article. It will be helpful to anyone who usess it, as well as myself. Keep up the good work – can’r wait to read more posts.

    Like

  127. I simply want to mention I’m beginner to weblog and absolutely savored you’re web site. More than likely I’m going to bookmark your website . You definitely come with remarkable posts. Bless you for revealing your blog site.

    Like

  128. Hey there! I’m at work browsing your blog from my new iphone 3gs! Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and look forward to all your posts! Keep up the great work!

    my web blog: null

    Like

  129. Outstandingly illuminating thanks, It is my opinion your current subscribers could possibly just want a very good deal more blog posts similar to this keep up the excellent information.

    Like

  130. Pingback: v6tfmijbtfvxerxse
  131. Thank you for any other wonderful post. The place else may anybody get that type of info in such an ideal manner of writing? I’ve a presentation subsequent week, and I am on the search for such information.

    Like

Comments are closed.