Category Archives: Naval helicopters

Cupping the Pacific — China’s Rising Influence

(Published March 27, 2018  IndraStra Global

Cupping the Pacific — China’s Rising Influence

China’s Rising Influence in the Pacific through Sale of Arms

There is one aspect of the recent revolution in Hawaii which seems to have been kept out of sight, and that is the relation of the islands, not merely to our own and to European countries, but to China. How vitally important that may become in the future is evident from the great number of Chinese, relatively to the whole population, now settled in the islands…….China, however, may burst her barriers eastward as well as westward, toward the Pacific as well as toward the European Continent.

                        Alfred Thayer Mahan, Captain, United States Navy. New York, Jan. 30, 1893


Arms sales are always for enhancement of self-interest of the seller country, they are primarily for furtherance of own strategic and commercial interests. The strategic reasons include, widening of areas of influence vis-a-vis a perceived adversary, projection of power in the desired region, quid pro quo proposition in times of hostilities through utilisation of recipient’s military facilities and resources or for gaining political upper hand in international bodies. Arms sales are invariably never without a hidden agenda on the part of the seller. The sales are justified under the garb of strengthening self defence capabilities of the recipient or providing support against an adversary. The commercial interests include furtherance of own defence manufacturing capabilities, enhancement of the profits accrued to its own defence industries or as a quid pro quo for other products of interest from the recipient.

This article takes in to account only the certified arms sales as recorded by SIPIRI and does not detail political, social, educational or other soft-influence approaches in the Pacific region by China. The article considers towering influence of the United States in the Pacific region since the second world war as a given and hence the arms sales by the US are not discussed vis-à-vis China. Further, an attempt has been made to indicate to the rising Chinese influence in view of its sales of arms in the region so as to spur some timely corrective measures to ensure cooperative and collective freedom of the Pacific commons. The countries considered in the article comprise SE Asia and South America.

American Approach to the Pacific Ocean

The American approach to the Pacific is largely an implementation of the thoughts of Mahan detailed in his book ‘The Interest of America in Sea Power, Present and Future’[1]. He had held forth on the importance of the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) for the Pacific, stating that they should be under the American control. He foresaw that the commercial shipping from Japan and China would pass near to the Hawaii island group and thus provide America a strong position in the Pacific to safeguard its maritime interests. He had said that Hawaii forms the centre of a circle of about 2100 nm radius in the Pacific, the periphery of which touches the archipelago system of Australia- New Zealand as well as the American west coast. The power which will hold Hawaii island group, in his opinion, would over see the Pacific. It is for the simple reason that in case of hostilities the supply lines would stretch back to over 3000-4000 nm each way making such an assault against America unstainable. The United States had structured its maritime thrust in to the Pacific along a virtual ‘arrow head’ from its west coast to Hawaii on to Guam and thereafter to Taiwan. Further, the concept of Island chains was constructed utilising island groups in the north-west pacific[2] during the cold war, to contain the spread of communism by Soviet Union and China. Some distances which describe the US ~6940 nm arrowhead across the Pacific up till Taiwan are: San Francisco – Hawaii (Honolulu) ~2095nm; Hawaii (Honolulu) – Guam ~3333nm; Guam – Taiwan ~512 nm. With Hawaii and Guam as entrenched US naval bases and the fact that a warship can sail 600 nm per day at 25kts the arrowhead is well established logistically to sustain prolonged operations from the west coast of the US. The allies would also provide unstinted support in times of inevitable hostilities in the region.

Chinese Perception of the Pacific

Chinese view their seaboard frontier as seas of denied opportunities, seas where their access is perpetually under watch by inimical powers. The Chinese threat perception encompasses Japan in the north and Malacca in the south. The access to the SLOCS from the Gulf is overlooked by India right up to Malacca straits, thereafter by nations which have been under the western influence. Indian island Chain of Laccadives sits astride the important 9-degree channel SLOC and the Indian island chain of Andamans looks over the entry to Malacca straits. It may be interesting to note that Singapore and Malaysian port of Penang lie just ~1176 nm and ~807 nm from Port Blair in Andamans.

The construct of the island chains is viewed as an attempt by the Western Powers to inhibit its naval expansion to within the First Island Chain. Once China has started looking seaward it finds layers of obstruction lined up in the Pacific to dissuade it from becoming a modern Naval power. The Chinese aim in the Pacific appears to be; to overcome or pierce the island chains at their weak points by strengthening its onshore long-range missile capabilities and its naval might. Japan and Guam are considered the strongest components of the first and second Island Chains. Taiwan and Philippines are relegated to a weak component status. However, it is held that Taiwan needs to be in the Chinese fold for a strong grip on the seas.

The US-Japan-Australia-India ‘quad’ (with France in support), if and when it takes concrete shape, would definitely be taken as an attempt to thwart Chinese ambitions of attaining global power status in its envisaged multipolar world. The positioning of road/rail mobile Anti-Ship Ballistic Missiles (ASBM) DF-21 D and DF-26 C in the recent past is to put a serious deterrent in place to thwart any intimidating attempt by the US Navy. It is claimed that the DF 21 D (CSS-5 Mod 5) has a range of ~1,500 km and is armed with a Manoeuvrable Re-entry Vehicle (MaRV). DF 21 D has the ability to attack large ships like the aircraft carriers. DF-26, has a claimed range of 3,000-4,000 km enough to strike Guam. It is estimated that China has command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) capabilities required for targeting ships at sea. However, ASBMs also require over-the-horizon (OTH) targeting support that can integrate target information from multiple sources. Once fully deployed the Chinese ASBM system-of-systems would be the world’s first system[3] capable of targeting a moving carrier group with long-range ballistic missiles fired from land-based mobile launchers and would pose a grave threat to the US forces and bases in the region.

China appears to be forging along a strategic trajectory in the Pacific in that it is developing its Navy to blue water capabilities, upgrading its land based ballistic missiles to target mobile assets of the adversary with conventional and nuclear warheads at great ranges, and courting countries in and across the Pacific through Arms sales to build up sympathetic logistic linkages to counter US influence. It is opined that China would keep building up its military might and its cross-Pacific network through sale of arms and/or dole of economic benefits to nations till such time that Taiwan comes firmly in its fold thereafter it could plan for making a bold move in the Pacific to challenge the US power.

Arms sales by China

Chinese arms and weapons are in demand as China has started supplying modern equipment which can meet the economic requirements of middle and lower tier countries. The arms are cheap, reasonably reliable and are supplied with access to easy term loans from Chinese banks. Chinese unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles are considered nearly as good as those offered for export by western countries. This has made China a leading arms supplier across the globe. It is understood that the guiding tenets of China’s arms export include, non-interference in internal matters of the country like its political or human rights record; perceived strengthening of the recipient’s self-defence capabilities; and bringing about regional arms balance. China also offers transfer of technology which makes countries gain a degree of self-reliance and allows development of their own defence industry. Whether the loans offered push the recipients into a debt trap or force it to part with its resources or make it pliable to extract military gains for China is yet to be seen. The fact that the importing country becomes politically indebted to China cannot be denied, even when a country is hedging or diversifying its sources of arms import, as it would definitely adopt a more benign stance where China is concerned.

The major countries where China seeks influence in the Pacific are those in SE Asia, Oceania and countries in South America.

Arms Transfer to SE Asian Countries by China

China has arms trade with seven of Southeast Asia’s countries namely Indonesia, Myanmar Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Laos and Timor-Leste.

Some of the major Arms transfers to SE Asian countries by China during the period 2010-2017 as per SIPIRI Arms trade register are:

Indonesia- Surface to Air Missiles (SAM), Anti-Ship Missiles (ASM), Naval Guns, Close-in weapon system (CIWS), Anti-Aircraft Guns (AA Guns), Multi-Rocket Launchers (MRL), various Radars, Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAV), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV).

Myanmar- Frigates, various Radars, ASM, Trainer/combat aircraft, Naval Guns, Main Battle Tanks (MBT), MRL, UAV, UCAV, SAM, Transport aircraft, Fifth generation aircraft J-17, Armoured Fire Support Vehicle (AFSV), Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC).

Malaysia- Offshore patrol vessels (OPV)

Thailand- Self-propelled MRL, ASM, Arty Locating Radar, SAM, Tank, Submarines, Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV), Anti-ship and Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) torpedoes.

Cambodia- Helicopters, Transport aircraft

Laos- Transport and light aircraft

Timor-Leste- Patrol aircraft

As far as Philippines is concerned, China has recently donated 3000 Assault rifles for tackling the drug mafia.

Interests in Oceania

 ‘China is not just filling a political vacuum created by Western neglect…. [i]t is incorporating the Pacific islands into its broader quest to become a major Asia-pacific power with a long-term goal to replace the US as the preeminent power in the Pacific Ocean’.

John Henderson and Benjamin Reilly, 2003[4]

Among the Pacific rim countries, Chinese relations with Australia and New Zealand have been very good traditionally, however, there has been a turbulence with respect to Australia in the recent past. Its relations with Tonga have raised eyebrows in the neighbourhood since it has a population of only 300-400 Chinese people and offers practically no economic benefits apart from its vast unexplored EEZ and fishery resources.

A word about maritime Tonga would not be out of place here. Tonga has a settlement history of over 3000 years based upon the discovery of Lapita pottery fragments on the islands. Lapita people are now supposed to be the ancestors of the Polynesian people. The Lapita people were considered to be proficient sailors and expert navigators.  The Polynesian people succeeding Lapita settlers were great sailors and sea warriors. Tongans also continued the seafarers’ legacy and excelled in building large bi-hulled, 20-30-meter-long, Kalia sailing crafts. The structure of the Kalia was unique in that it had one larger and one smaller hull. Stability could be achieved with the smaller hull rising with the ocean swell and the larger hull dipping in the swell.  They were joined by a platform forming a sort of bridge. The Tongans have been crisscrossing the pacific islands regularly over the past three millennia.  In fact, it is said that no Fiji boat ventured to and from Tonga without Tongan sailors on board. The Tongans procured stone tooling from Fiji, Society islands and Samoa. Tonga had also became a trading hub during the past millennia. Tongan waters have been a witness to one of the most filmed mutinies at sea amidst its Ha’apai island group, namely “the Mutiny on the Bounty”.

Tonga, today, sits astride the SLOC from Asia to South America & Australia/New Zealand to the US and has underground sea cables running through its EEZ. It also has rights to a number of satellite launch sites[5]. The area has a large number of air strips and ports.

Apart from the economic aid, humanitarian assistance and education programs, Chinese ships make frequent goodwill visits to the islands.  China had also gifted a turbo prop aircraft to Tonga, which had ruffled feathers in New Zealand. Recently the King Tupou VI of Tonga visited China where he stated that “Tonga agrees with China on its vision to build a new type of international relations and stands ready to work with China to build a community with a shared future for mankind.”[6]

Keeping the above in view, it does not appear that Chinese largesse towards these islands is a display of its charitable and humane side. It is Tonga’s strategic location on the third island chain that could be the more likely reason for the Chinese strategic foray in to the region.

Arms transfers to South American countries by China

It is noteworthy that China has not only made arms sales to SE Asian countries and is making friendly overtures in Oceania but that it has also made deep inroads through arms sales in South America. Significantly, it has sold arms to Venezuela, Peru, Argentina, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Trinidad & Tobago.

Some of the major Arms transfers to South American countries by China during the period 2010-2017 as per SIPIRI Arms trade register are:

Venezuela- Radars, Trainer/combat aircraft, Short Range Air-to-Air Missiles (SRAAM), Transport aircraft, self-propelled MRL/Mortar, infantry fighting vehicles (IFV), Armoured Protected Vehicles (APV), Armoured personnel carriers (APC), light tanks, ASM

Peru- SAM, 122 mm MRL

Argentina- APCs

Ecuador- Air Search Radars

Bolivia- Trainer/ combat aircraft, helicopters, APV

Trinidad and Tobago- OPVs

Strategically China has thus ‘cupped’ the Pacific by securing not only its south eastern shores and Oceania but also the western shores of South America.

San Francisco System

A Japanese peace treaty was signed on 6 September 1951 between 49 allied countries and Japan which also contained elements of regional security. A separate security treaty was signed between the US and Japan on that day which made Japan’s economy, military, and diplomacy dependent upon the US. There were a slew of bilateral agreements and treaties thereafter which resulted in a loose and flexible collective security & cooperation structure in the region. The result was a hub and spoke structure with Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Thailand, and Australia as spokes and the US as the hub. Historian John W Dower coined the term San Francisco System (SFS) to describe this informal arrangement under the security umbrella of the United States. The SFS continues to this day in the absence of any other formal security structure covering the Pacific region.


China has been working on the strategy of casting a strategic net across the seas with its arms sales which raises security concerns for nations directly or indirectly dependent upon sea trade. It has almost put in place a multi-polar power structure which would be difficult to dislodge. The string of pearls in the IOR, has grown in to a studded ‘Jade Necklace Across the Oceans’[7] with its pendant as the cupped Pacific.

The Chinese arms sales should not be wished away as insignificant since the market share of the US remains undented, it should instead be assessed in terms of collapsing geo-strategic and geo- political space of the US and its future ramifications.

The option available today in the Pacific is striving for freedom of the Ocean commons and loosening the trade & economic web spun by China through strengthening the spokes in the San Francisco System. It may be worthwhile to look for additional spokes in the nearly 70-year-old system especially in the third island chain. Island nations with rich maritime heritage like Tonga offer a good strategic foot hold and geostrategic advantage in the Pacific. For example, Tonga is ~3182 nm from US base at Guam, ~2752 nm from Hawaii, and ~1959 nm from Sydney. It has a large swath of uninhabited islands which can be utilised for security infrastructure. With the available sensor technologies innovative and cost effective ISR stations can be created which in turn would help in the development of the South Pacific Nations and wean them away from the influence of China.


A new node in these islands nations offers the US the flexibility of using the existing sea ports and airstrips as well as an alternate manoeuvring and staging Area. In turn it could accrue scarce strategic space and strengthen the third island chain.

Time to act is slipping away!

[1] Mahan A. T. The Interest of America in Sea Power, Present and Future. (Accessed 10 Mar 2018)

[2] On 4 January 1954, US State Department Advisor John Foster Dulles propounded the Island Chain Concept, comprising of three island chains. The key component of the First Island Chain was Taiwan (it was thereafter christened as one of the Unsinkable Aircraft Carriers); it extended from northern Philippines & Borneo, up to Kuril Islands. The second line of defence was from Mariana Island to Islands of Japan. The Third Chain’s key component was Hawaii; it began at Aleutians and ended in Oceania.

[3] Andrew S. Erickson. Chinese Anti-Ship Ballistic Missile Development and Counter-intervention Efforts

Testimony before Hearing on China’s Advanced Weapons. Panel I: China’s Hypersonic and Manoeuvrable Re-Entry Vehicle Programs U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, Washington, DC.23 February 2017. (Accessed 18 Mar 2018)

[4] John Henderson. Benjamin Reilly. Dragon in paradise: China’s rising star in Oceania. The National Interest; Summer 2003. (Accessed 18 Mar 2018)

[5] What Does China Want with Tonga? Featuring Gordon Chang & Cleo Paskal’, online video, 2014,, (accessed 15 March 2018).

[6] China, Tonga agree to promote strategic partnership. Xinhua. 24 Mar 2018. (accessed 17 March 2018).

[7] Kulshrestha, Sanatan. “FEATURED | Jade Necklace: Naval Dimension of Chinese Engagement with Coastal Nations Across the Oceans”. IndraStra Global 02, no. 12 (2016) 0032.  (Accessed 19 Mar 2018)

24. Hovering Danger- Guided Weapons of Naval Helicopters

(Published in SP’s Naval Forces, Jun-Jul 2013)

Hovering Danger- Guided Weapons of Naval Helicopters

The first helicopter to be widely used in the US and the UK navies was the Sikorsky R-4, powered by a radial engine to rotate its main rotor with three blades. Interestingly the earliest use of the R-4/R-5 helicopter was as a ‘plane guard’ to recover pilots in case they ditched near the aircraft carriers. In fact the US Navy at one time opined that the helicopter would never be big enough for useful deployment at sea by the Navy! Today with advancement in technology, the Naval Helicopters are assigned the tasks of; Anti submarine Warfare (ASW), Combat Search and Rescue (SAR), anti ship surveillance and targeting (ASuW), Mine warfare countermeasures (MCM), surveillance, reconnaissance and target acquisition, over the horizon targeting, electronic countermeasures (ECM), communication relay, Naval surface fire support (NSFS), ship boarding and Utility. In fact the capabilities and sub capabilities of the SH-60 helicopter with the US Navy additionally include; Amphibious Warfare, Anti Air warfare, Electronic warfare, Fleet support operations; Command, control and communications etc.

The development of the Naval Helicopter today, owes its lineage to its primary development in an anti submarine role to combat enemy submarines. The US Navy visualised the role of the Naval Helicopter in combating the German Submarines which were threatening US as well as allied shipping. It was envisaged that Coast Guard pilots would fly the helicopters to guard the convoys by scouting for submarines and operate from the platforms on decks of merchant ships. The first Sikorsky R-4 Naval helicopter was inducted in 1943. Thereafter it began the trials for ‘Evaluation of the Ship Based Helicopter in Anti-Submarine Warfare’. In the anti submarine role it was thought that once the sonar of a destroyer detected a submarine the Helicopter would be guided to the submarines location and would drop a MK IX 200-pound depth charge, thereafter it would be replenished from the destroyer. In 1944, trials were carried out to fit the helicopter with dipping sonar, to  make it more autonomous, the fears of excessive noise due to rotors and downward wash proved to be unfounded, further, as a spin off it was observed that helicopters were very useful in alignment of fire control and anti aircraft radars. Thereafter in the late fifties ASW helicopters were equipped with light weight torpedoes and they were extensively used to track and detect nuclear submarines. The Sea King and the LAMPS followed, the current version SH-60 R has upgraded avionics, multimode radar, advanced low frequency sonar, guns, missiles and torpedoes for combating targets in the littoral regions.

Indian Navy has a requirement for both multi role as well as light utility helicopters, to replace its aging Sea Kings and Chetaks. The Multi Role helicopter procurement is at commercial bid opening stage, with two contenders namely Augusta Westland NH-90 and Sikorsky S-70B. Indian Navy has also issued an RFI for 120 Helicopters (NMRH) in the 9-12.5 tons category and RFP is likely in a couple of months. The NMRH is envisaged to carry out the ASW as well as the ASuW roles. Indian Navy has also issued an RFP for 56 light utility helicopters for ASW and other support roles.

The essential weapons on board the Naval helicopters are the aerial torpedo (Light weight Torpedo, LWT) and the anti shipping missiles, therefore it would be worthwhile to look at few prominent weapons in these categories.

Helicopter Launched Aerial Torpedoes

The aerial torpedoes were extensively used in the WW II; however, it is a fact that with the advent of the cruise missile the torpedo has been confined to its role against submerged submarines only. The anti shipping missiles have longer range, much higher speeds and easier deployment than the aerial torpedoes and therefore they are preferred for the anti shipping role.

A244 S Mod 3 is an upgrade of the A 244S from WASS Italy. The main improvements include an acoustic seeker which has pre-formed multiple transmission and reception beams and multi-frequency operating capability. This ensures high performance in very shallow waters and at very long engagement distances. The warhead is Omni-directional type which is designed to maximise the lethal effect. Simultaneous classification and tracking of several targets is possible due to its advanced Digital Signal Processor, which is also able to clearly discriminate between the real and false targets. The battery package has increased number of cells which gives the Mod 3 an increase of about 50% in range. It also features a D-C contra rotating motor with an electronic controller for variable speed propulsion. The main features of its homing head include; active homing ranges greater than 2100 m, very low TS acquisition capability, Narrow and broad band modes, Active /passive modes, capability to detect bottomed targets, classification based upon spatial diversity, multi frequency, and signal processing. Its low noise and programmable acoustic enabling delays detection by the target ship of the oncoming torpedo. With a length of 2.75 m, weight of 250 Kg it has a maximum speed of 38 kts and an endurance of 13500 m/10000 m depending upon low/high speed.

The MU90/IMPACT marketed by the consortium EUROTORP is the main NATO torpedo and is considered to be the most advanced LWT. It weighs 304 Kg and has length of 3.237 m. It is claimed that pre-arrangements to cope with Submarine-Launched Anti-Air-Missile (SLAAM) have already been incorporated in the system. It can operate between depths of 25 m to 1000 m and is navigable up to 3 m. It is claimed that its multi-frequency, parallel processing and simultaneous acoustic modes operation, allow multi-target tracking capability, and provides the weapon with immunity against anti-torpedo countermeasures. The strap down control and guidance capability allows it to manoeuvre in all attitudes. It has an engagement range of 15000 m. The warhead is STAGNAG compliant V350 insensitive shaped charge with an impact exploder. The safeties include two mechanical and six independent electrical devices.

 The MK 54 by Raytheon incorporates the best of technologies from MK 50, MK 48 ADCAP and MK 46 torpedoes. The acoustic head, an upgrade from MK 50, provides low self-noise and superior  performance in littoral areas. Control and guidance is a combination of features from MK 48 and MK 50 with the latest commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing power (14 gigaflops) in an expandable open architecture. The warhead consists of the MK 103 Mod 1 Warhead and the MK 20 Mod 0 Exploder.

 The Flash Black from WASS, currently under development, is claimed to have features of the next generation of LWTs. The design of the Flash Black is highly versatile with the capability to be launched from multiple platforms (underwater and AUV, UUV and USV), against any target and in any environment, including littoral waters and in extremely shallow depths. It can counter even the most sophisticated countermeasures.

Helicopter Launched Anti Ship Missiles

 The major role of the Naval Helicopter in an anti ship operation is that of the Over the Horizon Targeting (OTH) of anti ship cruise missiles (ASCM). This requires that target vessel be acquired, tracked and the data passed on to the main ship and/or carry out mid course and terminal guidance of the launched ASCM. The Naval helicopter is generally armed with lighter missiles capable of destroying smaller craft and crippling larger ships, it provides protection to own ship against patrol boats; fast attack crafts etc. and supports the launch ship against larger enemy ships.

 The AS.12 anti ship missile was inducted in the French Navy in 1960 for attacking ships and submarines on the surface. It had a bulging nose and four clipped triangular wings. It functioned with two solid fuel rocket motors; a powerful booster rocket that burned for 2.2 seconds and a sustainer motor that burned for 28 seconds. The missile guidance was by using four metal vanes around the exhaust nozzle in a thrust vectoring system, the steering signals were sent to the missile by means of two wires which were paid out from two spools on the rear of the missile. A gas operated arming mechanism fed from the sustainer motor, armed the warhead 7.7 seconds after launch. The weight of the warhead was 28 kg.

The Penguin was the first NATO anti ship missile with an infra red seeker developed in collaboration between the Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk and Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, with financial support from West Germany and USA. It entered service in 1972. It could be fired from a number of helicopters like SH 60 Seahawk and Westland Super Lynx. The missile was inertial guided until the autonomous terminal phase. It had a solid rocket engine and a 120 kg warhead.

Another light weight anti ship missile for deployment form the Lynx helicopter is the British Sea Skua, which has a blast fragmentation SAP warhead of 28 kg. It can travel at one of the four preselected heights based upon the prevailing sea surface conditions; it climbs up as it nears the target to acquire it. The Missile homes on to the target illuminated by the helicopters radar.

Marte MK 2/S is an anti-ship missile by MBDA which is fully qualified on helicopter AW 101. The Marte MK 2/S is the technologically advanced version of Marte MK 2 of the Italian Navy’s SH3D helicopter fleet. It has a weight of 310 kg, length of 3.85 m. It is a high subsonic missile with a range of 30 km. Marte  ER is the advanced version of the Marte series, while it retains the existing features like the sea skimming capability, all weather operation and the radar homing head, it has an extended range of over 100 km. The longer range is the result of incorporating a turbo jet engine. This, along with advanced avionics enable the missile to have multiple selectable trajectories and flight profiles, an option for in-flight target re-vectoring is also available. High subsonic speed, ECCM, inertial and GPS navigation would make it a formidable weapon in both littoral as well as high sea environment. It would be fully interoperable with the MK 2/S version.

 DELILAH HL, this missile for the helicopter launch has been developed by Israel Military Industries (IMI) from its successful DELILAH missile. It offers new offensive capabilities for attacking targets in coastal, littoral, blue waters and on land. With a range of over 250 km it allows the helicopter to remain outside the range of long and medium range SAMs as well as the air defence systems of the enemy ship. The missile has a weight of 230 kg, with a length of 3.20 m. It has INS/GPS navigation with a data link for target validation. The warhead weight is 30 kg and it has speeds between Mach 0.3 – 0.7.

 The Exocet AM 39 is the air launched version of the Exocet missile family, and a product of MBDA. The missile weighs 670 kg, it is 4.6 m long and it flies at a speed of 315 m/sec. It has a solid propellant engine, with a booster and a sustainer, and a range of 70 km. Its warhead is 165 kg of insensitive explosive, optimised for HE blast and pre-fragmented effects, with impact fuse and proximity function. It is an inertial guided missile with active radar homing for the end phase. It flies very close to the sea surface (≤ 2m) which gives very little reaction time to the target. It is a battle proven missile.

 Future Trends

Developments in the unmanned rotary craft technology has opened entirely new vistas to weapon designers who are taking inspiration from mini weapons developed for UAVs for incorporation in to the unmanned helicopters. An example of the unmanned helicopter is the MQ 8B Sea Scout, the marinised version of the MQ 8B Fire Scout, being developed by Northrop Grumman for the US Navy. The Sea Scout would be fitted with an Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System which is a laser guided 70 mm rocket. In addition the US navy has asked that RDR-1700 Surveillance Radar be mounted underneath the Sea Scout; this synthetic aperture radar can look through sandstorms and clouds and can track 20 air/ surface targets.

 The transition from the naval helicopter to the smaller and lighter unmanned naval helicopter appears to be certainty (at least partially), which would ensure availability of these unmanned craft on much larger number of smaller ships. This would lead to rapid development of associated weapons, like micro miniaturised missiles and ultra light weight torpedoes, which could relieve the ship of targeting smaller craft and midget submarines in the littoral environment.